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Adédèjì, Adewale:
Yoruba Culture and Its Influence on the Development of Modern Popular Music in Nigeria.
Ph.D. The University of Sheffield, 2010. 288 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 3.00 MB

Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
The History of Fuji Music in Nigeria.
Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1993. 132 p.
Contents

Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
The History of Juju Music in Nigeria.
Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1994. 155 p.
Contents

Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
The Highlife Years: History of Highlife in Nigeria.
Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1995. xvi & 136 p.
Contents

Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
The King of Fuji Music. Dr. Waisu Ayinde Anifowoshe Marshal.
Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1996. 120 p.
Contents

Adesokan, Z.:
Ebenezer Obey: A Popular Juju Artist.
B.A. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 1985.

Ajayi, Tunji:
King Sunny Ade. The Legend!
Denver, Colo.: OutskirtsPress, 2009. 425 p.
Contents

Ajetunmobi, Rasheed; Babatunde Osiyale & Dele Sogbesan:
Haruna Ishola: The Life and Times of Baba Ngani Agba.
Ijagun, Ogun State: Tai Solarin University of Education Press, 2010. 110 p.

Ajibero, Matthew Idowo:
Yoruba Music on Gramophone Records:
A Comprehensive Annotated Discography of Chief Commander Ebenezer Obey’s Juju Music.
B.A. Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria), 1978. xxvii & 56 p.
Contents

Ajirire, Tosin & Wale Alabi:
King Sunny Ade. An Intimate Biography.
Lagos: Showbiz Publications, 1989. 96 p.
Contents

Ajirire, Tosin & Wale Alabi:
3 Decades of Nigerian Music 1960-1990.
Lagos: Limelight Showbiz Publication, 1992. 135 p.
Contents

Alaja-Browne, Afolabi:
Juju Music: A Study of its Social History and Style.
Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh, 1985. 187 p.
Contents

Allen, Tony with Michael E. Veal:
Tony Allen. An Autobiography of the Master Drummer of Afrobeat.
Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2013. 199 p.
Contents

Azike, Tochukwu I.:
The Compilation of Bibliography on the Records of Oliver De Coque and His Ogene Sound Super of Africa.
Institute of Education, Library Service, Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria), 1992. 20 p.
Contents

Bender, Wolfgang:
Waka-Sakara-Apala-Fuji. Islamisch Beeinflusste Musik der Yoruba.
Kommentierte Kataloge zur afrikanischen Musik, Nr. 2.
Iwalewa, Universität Bayreuth, 1983. 23 p.

Bender, Wolfgang:
Der nigerianische Highlife.
Musik und Kunst in der populären Kultur der 50er und 60er Jahre.

Wuppertal: Edition Trickster im Peter Hammer Verlag, 2007. 572 p.
Inhalt

Bensignor, François:
Fela – le Génie de l’afrobeat.
Plogastel Saint-Germain: Editions Demi-Lune, 2012. 192 p.
Table des matières

Coker, ‘Niyi Jr.:
A Study of the Music and Social Criticism of African Musician Fela Anikulapo-Kuti.
Studies in the History and Interpretation of Music , Book 100. University of Michigan.
Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 2004. xvi & 152 p.
Contents

Collins, E[dmund] J[ohn]:
My Life, by Sir Victor Uwaifo. The Black Knight of Music Fame.
Accra: Black Bell Publication, 1976. 46 p.
Contents

Collins, [Edmund] John:
Fela. Kalakuta Notes.
Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2009. 159 p.
Contents
2nd enlarged edition
Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2015.  xii & 326 p.
Contents

Damilola, Awala Oritsejolomi:
The Contemporary Nigerian Popular Music: A Study of the Hip-Hop Styles.
M.A. University of Lagos, 2008.

Depagne, Rinaldo & Marianne Maury Kaufmann (dir.):
Fela Kuti: le génial musicien du Nigeria.
Paris: Editions Cauris, 2004. 28 p.
ISBN 978-291-460-511-0

Emielu, Austin ‘Maro:
Nigerian Highlife Music. 
Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization, 2013. xii & 252 p.
Contents

Fadipe, Israel Ayinla:
The Theme of Ethical Re-Orientation in Popular Music: The Case of Ayinla Omowura.
M.A. University of Ibadan, 2009.

Fairfax, Frank Thurmond:
Fela, the Afrobeat King: Popular Music and Cultural Revitalization in West Africa.
Ph.D. University of Michigan, 1993. ix & 466 p.
ProQuest no. 9409686

Idolor, Emurobome G.:
Ókpẹ Disco: A Neo-Traditional Nigeria Popular Music Genre.
Ph.D. University of Ibadan, 2001.

Idolor, Emuborome [G.] (ed.):
Music In Africa: Facts and Illusions.
Ibadan: Stirlin-Horden Publishers (Nig) Ltd., 2002.

Idowu, Mabinuori Kayode:
Fela: Why Blackman Carry Shit.
Ikeja: Opinion Media Limited, 1986. 186 p.
Version française
Fela « Why Blackman Carry Shit ».
Paris: Éditions Florent Massot, 1997. 157 p.
ISBN 978-2-908382-47-1

Idowu, Mabinuori Kayode:
Fela le combattant.
Bordeaux: Le Castor Astral, 2002. 141 p.
Table des matières
Edizione italiana
Fela Kuti. Lotta continua!
Roma: Stampa Alternativa, 2007. 109  p.
ISBN 978-88-7726-982-4

Idowu, Mabinuori Kayode:
Fela – Phenomenon & Legacy.
Paris: Black Art Production, 2012. 524 p.
Contents

Ige, Clement & Femi Abulude:
Hooked to Music. King Sunny Ade’s Own Story.
Ibadan: Distinct Publications, 1996. 101 p.
Contents

Ikonne, Uchenna:
Wake Up You! The Rise and Fall of Nigerian Rock, 1972-1977 Vol. 1
Now Again Records ‎(Los Angeles, Calif.), CD & book, NA 5120, P2016. 104 p.

Ikonne, Uchenna:
Wake Up You! The Rise and Fall of Nigerian Rock, 1972-1977 Vol. 2
Now Again Records ‎(Los Angeles, Calif.), CD & book, NA 5125, P2016. 98 p.

Ita, Chief Bassey:
Jazz in Nigeria. An Outline Cultural History.
Calabar & Lagos: Radical House Publication, 1984. 99 p.
Contents

Lawal, Olakunle A.:
Music as a Commentary on the Society:
The Life and Times of Chief (Dr.) Sikiru Ayinde “Barrister” Agbaje Balogun.
CBAAC Occasional Monographs, No. 26.
Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization, 2013. 30 p.

Leonard, Lynn:
The Growth of Entertainments of non-African Origin in Lagos from 1866-1920 (with Special Emphasis on Concert, Drama, and the Cinema).
M.A. University of Ibadan, 1967. 193 p.

Loko, Olugbenga Olanrewaju:
Growth and Challenges of Music Recording Industry in Nigeria, 1940-2000.
Ph.D. University of Ibadan, 2009.

Moore, Carlos:
Fela, Fela. This bitch of a life.
London: Allison & Busby, 1982. 287 p.
Contents
US reprint
Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press, 2009 288 p.
ISBN 978-3942-989-34-3
Version française
Fela Fela, cette putain de vie.
Paris: Karthala, 1982. 305 p.
ISBN 978-2-86537-040-5
Edição em português
Fela. Esta vida puta.
Belo Horizonte, MG: Nandyala, 2011. 352 p.
ISBN 978-8561-19146-7

Ngoladi, Uzor:
Seun Kuti : Inside Kalakuta & Within Afrobeat.
Lagos: Strategia Blast International (Nigeria) Ltd., 2012. xiii & 202p.
Contents

Obey, Ebenezer in collaboration with Mike Awoyinfa:
The Legend’s Own Story.
Ibadan: Egret Books, 1992. ix & 156 p.

Ogisi, Arugba Aboyowa:
The Evolution of Popular Music in South-Western Nigeria, 1900-1990.
Ph.D. University of Ibadan, 2009.

Ogunbowale, Mopelolade Oreoluwa:
“In the Ghetto, Life No Easy For We”:
The Construction and Negotiation of Identity in Ajegunle Raga.

M.A. University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario), 2012. x & 98 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 2.56 MB

Oikelome, Albert Oseghaede:
Styllistc Analysis of Afrobeat Music of Fela Anikulapo-Kuti.
Ph.D. University of Ibadan, 2009.

Okafor, Richard C.; Afam Nwokike; Cosmas Eziechi  & Jonathan Egudu (eds.):
The Life and Works of Celestine Ukwu.
Enugu: New Generation Book, 1999. 158 p.
Contents

Okagbare, Benson Corporo:
Songs of I. K. Dairo, MBE and his Blue Spots (with Plates) with Commentaries in English.
Lagos: Published by the Author. Printed by Nigeria National Press, Apapa, 1969. ix & 134 p.
Contents

Okoro, Justice Chukwudi:
No Eclipse for the Star: The Music and Message of Sir Warrior.
Benin: Timeless Publishers, 2005.

Oladipo-Ola, Jawi:
Fela Anikulapo-Kuti. The Primary Man of an African Personality. The Narrative and Screenplay.
Osogbo: Frontpage Media, 2011. 130 p.
Contents

Olaniyan, Oluyemi:
The Evolution of the Technique of the Creativity of Fuji – A Nigerian Popular Music Genre.
Mongraph Series, Department of Music, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 2004.

Olaniyan, Tejumola:
Arrest the Music! Fela and His Rebel Art and Music.
Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2004. 239 p.
Contents

Olatunji, Babatunde with Robert Atkinson:
The Beat of My Drum. An Autobiography.
Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2005. 247 p.
Contents

Olorunyomi, Olusola:
Afrobeat Song-text Narrative and the Poetics of Hypertext Performance.
Ph.D. University of Ibadan, 2005. xv & 250 p.

Olorunyomi, Sola:
Afrobeat! Fela and the Imagined Continent.
Trenton, N.J.:  Africa World Press, 2003. 288 p.
Contents

Olusoji, Stephen Olu-Ibukun:
Comparative Analysis of the Islam-Influenced Waka, Apala, and Sakara Popular Music of the Yoruba
Ph.D. University of Ibadan, 2009.

Omojola, Bode:
Popular Music in Western Nigeria: Theme, Style and Patronage System.
Ibadan: Institut Français de Recherché en Afrique (IFRA Ibadan), 2006. 166p.
Reprint
Ibadan: Institut Français de Recherché en Afrique (IFRA Nigeria),  2014. 166 p.
Contents

Omojola, Bode:
Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century. Identity, Agency, and Performance Practice.
Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2012. 285 p. & CD
Contents

Onwuegbuna, Ikenna Emmanuel:
Trends in African Popular Music.
Socio-Cultural Interactions and the Reggae Genre in Nigeria.
Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris, 2015. 132 p.
Contents

Opesanwo, Gbenga & Segun Ogunkoya:
I. K. Dairo  M.B.E.: The Man, the Myth and the Blue Spots.
Abeokuta: Kunle Alayande Printing and Publishing Co., 1992. xii & 140 p.
Contents

Oreoluwa, Kuponiyi Aderiyike:
Code-Switching in Contemporary Nigerian Hip Hop Songs.
M.A. University of Ghana (Legon), 2013 vi & 95 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 0.98 MB

Schoonmaker, Trevor:
Fela. From West Africa to West Broadway.
New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 212 p.
Reprint
Houghton, South Africa: Jacana Media, 2004. 212 p.
Contents

Servant, Jean-Christophe:
“Which way Nigeria?” Music under Threat:
A Question of Money, Morality, Self-Censorship and Sharia.

Copenhagen: Freemuse,  2003. 88p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 964 KB

Stephanakis, Alexandra:
Fela le souffle noir.
Marseille: Editions Altinéa, 2001. 192 p.
ISBN 978-2-9098-2885-5

Thomas, T. Ajayi:
History of Juju Music. A History of a Popular Music from Nigeria.
Jamaica, N.Y.: Thomas Organization, 1992.
170 p. & VHS video, 3 audio cassettes or CDs
Contents

Timothy-Asobele, Samuel (Ola)jide:
Historical Trends of Nigerian Indigenous and Contemporary Music.
Isolo-Lagos: Rothmed International Limited, 2002. ix & 144 p.
Contents

Veal, Michael E.:
Fela. The Life and Times of an African Musical Icon.
Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2000. 313 p.
Contents

Waterman, Christopher Allen:
Juju: The Historical Development, Socioeconomic Organization
and Communicative Funktions of a West African Popular Music.
Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1986. 447 p.
Contents

Waterman, Christopher A[llen]:
Jùjú: A Social History and Ethnography of an African popular Music.
Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1990. 277 p. & audio cassette
Contents

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  • Adédèjì, Adewale:
    Yoruba Culture and Its Influence on the Development of Modern Popular Music in Nigeria.
    Ph.D. The University of Sheffield, 2010. 288 p.

    CONTENTS

    Abstract 1
    Dedication 2
    Acknowledgements 3
    List of Figures 8

     

    Chapter One
    Introduction 10
    1:1 Background to Study 12
    1:2 The Beginning 14
    1:3 Aim and Purpose of Research 17
    1:4 Scope of Study 18
    1:5 Research Questions 19
    1:6 Research Methodology 20
    1:7 Fieldwork Experience 21
    1:8 Preview of Chapters 24

    Chapter Two
    Definition of Concepts and Theoretical Framework 27
    2:1 Introduction 27
    2:2 Popular Music, Language, Culture and The Issue of Identity 27
    2:3 Nigerian Music: Between ‘Popular’/ ‘Contemporary‘ and 
          ‘Traditional‘ / ‘Folk’ 38

    Chapter Three
    An Introduction to Nigeria and the Yorùbá People 44
    3:1 Introduction 44
    3:2 Nigeria: A Short Profile 44
    3:3 The Yorùbá people: Historical Background 55
    3:4 The Yorùbá Arts and Cultural Worldview 59
    3:5 Lagos City and The Evolution of Nigeria‘s Urban 
          Popular Culture 60
    3:6 Conclusions: Nigeria‘s Urban Popular Culture and
           The Yoruba influence 74

    Chapter Four
    Nigeria: What Manner of Music? 75
    4:1 Introduction 75
    4:2 Nigerian Popular Music: An Overview 75
    4:3 Nigerian Popular Music: 
          The Nation and Process of Emergence 79
    4:4 Styles of Popular Music in Nigeria 82
    4:5 The Nigerian Popular Music and the Underlying 
           Yorùbá Influence 102
    4:6 Conclusion 111

    Chapter Five
    The Nigerian Hip Hop Scene and the ‘Afro Hip Hop’ Identity 112
    5:1 Introduction 112
    5:2 Origin of Hip Hop 112
    5:3 Background to Nigeria‘s Hip Hop 116
    5:4 Hip Hop, ‘The Street‘ and The Nigerian Experience 122
    5:5 Nigeria‘s Afro Hip Hop: Style and Peculiarities 130
    5:6 Major Themes in Nigeria‘s Afro Hip Hop 139
    5:7 Afro Hip Hop: Why Yorùbá is the Preferred Medium
           of Communication 153
    5:8 Conclusion 167

    Chapter Six
    ‘Ruggedy Baba’: An Afro Hip Hop Case Study 169
    6:1 Introduction 169
    6:2 Ruggedman: Artist Profile 170
    6:3 ‘Ruggedy Baba‘ – Lyrics and Translation 172
    6:4 The Yorùbá Influence n ‘Ruggedy Baba‘ 176
    6:5 ‘Ruggedy Baba‘ and The Negotiation of Nigerian Identity 180
    6:6 Backgrounds to Popular Music Video and The Nigerian 
          Experience 185
    6:7 ‘Ruggedy Baba‘: Video Analysis 192
    6:8 Conclusion and Chapter Summary 207

    Chapter Seven
    Hip Hop, Fújì and the Use of Yorùbá Culture in Preventing Popular Music Homogenization 210
    7:1 Introduction: Hip Hop and Fújì; The Synergy 210
    7:2 Hip Hop and Fújì: Yorùbá Connection, Influences 
          and Similarities 211
    7:3 Hip Hop, Fújì and the Idea of Fusion‘ and ‘Crossover‘ 220
    7:4 Hip Hop and Fújì in Relation to Globalization and 
          Hybridization 238
    7:5 Conclusion 243

    Chapter Eight
    The Nigerian Music Industry: Challenges and Possibilities 244
    8:1 Introduction 244
    8:2 The Nigerian Music industry: An Overview 245
    8:3 Exit of Major Recording Labels 251
    8:4 The Challenges 254
    8:5 Possibilities and Recommendations 262
    8:6 Conclusion 263

    Summary and Conclusions 265

    References 268

    Appendix: Accompanying CDs 288

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The History of Fuji Music in Nigeria.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1993. 132 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-0-2

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement
    Foreword
    Dedication
    Introduction

     1 Traditional Music in Nigeria 1
     2 Advent of Apala, Sakara, Dundun and Sekere 8
     3 Were Music, and the Pioneers 28
     4 The Change 36
     5 Alhaji Sikiru Balogun (Barrister) 40
     6 Alhaji Ayinla Kolawole Ilori (Kollington) 53
     7 Alhaji Wasiu Anifowoshe (Marshal) 64
     8 Alhaji Dauda Akanmu (Epo Akara) 73
     9 The Propagators of fuji music 83
    10 The Merchants 100
    11 Influence on the Society 117
    12 The New Trend, Any Hope? 120
    13 Room for improvement 122
    14 Artistes & Base 125
    15 Some records released 126
    16 References 132

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The History of Juju Music in Nigeria.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1994. 155 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-3-7

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement i
    Dedication iii
    Preface iv

     1 Traditional music in Nigeria 1
     2 The roots of juju music 5
     3 Juju music pioneers 10
     4 The influence of highlife, kokoma & mambo 18
     5 The revolutionary days 25
     6 Pa I. K. Dairo 32
     7 Chief Ebenezer Obey 38
     8 King Sunny Ade 49
     9 Admiral Dele Abiodun 63
    10 Juju music propagators 69
    11 The new trends 88
    12 Shina Peters 96
    13 The trend setters 103
    14 The merchants 121
    15 Some record releases 145
    16 Juju musicians and base 150

    Index 151
    Reference 155

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The Highlife Years: History of Highlife in Nigeria.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1995. xvi & 136 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-4-5

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements i
    Dedication iii
    Preface iv
    Introduction ix

     1 Before Highlife 1
     2 Throughout The West Coast 6
     3 The Protagonists 18
     4 In Nigeria 23
     5 The Players within 36
     6 Dr. Victor Abimbola Olaiya 73
     7 Bala Miller 84
     8 Osadebe 87
     9 Oliver De Coque 91
    10 The Trios 98
    11 E. T. Mensah 111
    12 Highlife Players in Ghana 116
    13 Down The Drain? Possible Revival 120

    Index 123
    Reference 135

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The King of Fuji Music. Dr. Waisu Ayinde Anifowoshe Marshal.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1996. 120 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-9-6

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements i
    Dedication ii
    Introduction 1

     1 What fuji is all about 6
     2 The early players and influences 13
     3 Revolutionary days 18
     4 The emergence of Waisu Ayinde 24
     5 The road to stardom 30
     
     A picture is worth a 1,000 words 36-76

     6 Crowning of the fuji king 77
     7 The Marshal organisation 85
     8 Dynamism of fuji music 88
     9 The king as a family man 94

    10 What people say 99
    11 Appendix 109
    12 Index 114
    13 Reference 120

  • Ajayi, Tunji:
    King Sunny Ade. The Legend!
    Denver, Colo.: OutskirtsPress, 2009. 425 p.
    ISBN 978-1-4327-1105-4

    CONTENTS

    Dedication ix
    Introduction: The Hypnosis xi
    Appreciation xxi

     1. The Gestation and Formative Years 1
     2. The Metamorphosis 19
     3. The Enigmatic Man and Creativity 33
     4. Portrait of the Astute Manager 51
     5. The Polemics in Vibes 63
     6. The Interregnum in Music Empire 83
     7. The Octave in Tidal Waves 97
     8. On the Threshold to Eternal Honour 115
     9. The Crown 129
    10. The Post-Kingship Era I 137
    11. The Post- Kingship Era II 171
    12. The Post-Kingship Era III 211
    13. One Sickness Too Many 229
    14. The Afrikaness in His Vibrataions 249
    15. The Monograph: An Ode to a Sage 279
    16. The Vivacious African Beats Ensemble 295
    17. Making Waves Around the World 305
    18. The Great Man’s Mystiques at the Diamond Age 325
    19. The Exquisite (Get Up) U.S.A. Tour 337
    20. Brandishing Honours into the New Millennium 355
    21. The Master Guitarist: A Songster from another World! 375
    22. King Sunny Ade’s Millennial Glory 391

    Appendices
    KSA’s Table of Awards/Plaques 411
    Bibliography 421
    Author Profile 425

  • Ajibero, Matthew Idowo:
    Yoruba Music on Grammophone Records:  A Comprehensive Annotated Discography of Chief Commander Ebenezer Obey’s Juju Music.
    B.A. Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria), 1978. xxvii & 56 p.

    CONTENTS

    Introduction xi
    What is Peculiar to Obey and his Music xii
    Mode of Arrangement xvii
    Problems and Limitations xviii
    Sources of Information xx
    Biography and Musical Career of Chief Commander Ebenezer Obey xxi
    Names of Inter-Reformers Band Members xxvi
    Bibliography xxvii

    Annotated Discography 1
    Subject Index 55

  • Ajirire Tosin & Wale Alabi:
    King Sunny Ade. An Intimate Biography.
    Lagos: Showbiz Publications, 1989. 96 p.
    ISBN 978-30638-0-4

    CONTENTS

    Preface 9
    Appreciation 10
    Prologue 13

    1. In the Beginning 15
    2. Learning the Ropes 21
    3. Stepping out 32
    4. Crisis and Conflicts 57
    5. Peace and Truce 67
    6. The King, The Myth 70
    7. Glimpses of the Future 79

    Epilogue 83
    Discography 87
    Appendix 89

  • Ajirire, Tosin & Wale Alabi:
    3 Decades of Nigerian Music 1960-1990.
    Lagos: Limelight Showbiz Publication, 1992. 135 p.
    ISBN 978-30638-2-03

    CONTENTS

    Foreword  [7]
    Preface  [9]
    Appreciation  [11]

     1.  Afrobeat  13
     2.  Juju  19
     3.  Pop  33
     4.  Apala  45
     5.  Reggae  53
     6.  Fuji  65
     7.  Gospel  73
     8.  Kalangu  79
     9.  Highlife  85
    10. Folks  99
    11. Sakara  107
    12. Waka  113
    13. The Record Industry  117
    14. Promotions  121
    15. Associations  125
    16. Awards  127

    Conclusion  131

  • Alaja-Browne, Afolabi:
    Juju Music: A Study of its Social History and Style.
    Ph.D.  University of Pittsburgh, 1985. 187 p.
    ProQuest no. 8519449

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments vi
    List of Table x
    List of Figures xi

    Introduction 1
    Orientation of this Research 3
    Context of the Study  7

    Chapter 1
    The Formative Stage 14
    1.1 The Beginnings at Till Nelson Akamo Davies’s
           Motor Mechanic Workshop 14
    1.2 The Origin of the Word Jùjú in Jùjú Music 25
    1.3 Emergence, Acceptance and Early Growth 38

    Chapter 2
    The Developmental Stage 50
    2.1 The Rise of Exponents from the School of
           Abdulrafiu Basatunde King 50
    2.2 The Emergence and Contribution of Regional
           Exponents 66
    2.3 The Rise of the Superstars 72

    Chapter 3
    The Era of the Superstars: The Nineteeen Seventies 89

    Chapter 4
    Style in Juju Music:
    A Study of the Music of Abdulrafiu Babatunde King 108
    4.1 The Social Context of Style in the Music of
           Tunde King 110
    4.2 Stylistic Resources 112
    4.3 Stylistic Analysis 127

    Chapter 5
    Summary and Conclusions 165

    Appendix A
    Discography of some Commercial Recordings Made by
    Abdulrafiu Babatunde King in the Early 1950s.
    Source: Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation 171

    Appendix B
    Additional Photographs of some Juju Bandleaders
    in Nigeria. Source: Nigerian Newspapers and Magazines 172

    Sources Consulted 177

  • Allen, Tony with Michael E. Veal:
    Tony Allen. An Autobiography of the Master Drummer of Afrobeat.
    Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2013. 199 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8223-5591-5

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    Introduction by Michael E. Veal 1
    Chapter one Right in the Center of Lagos 21
    Chapter two Highlife Time 36
    Chapter three The Sky Was the Limit 47
    Chapter four God’s Own Country 68
    Chapter five Swinging like Hell! 85
    Chapter six Everything Scatter 108
    Chapter seven Progress 128
    Chapter eight When One Road Close 146
    Chapter nine Paris Blues 162
    Chapter ten No End to Business 175

    Selected references 187
    Index 193

  • Azike, Tochukwu I.:
    The Compilation of Bibliography on the Records of Oliver De Coque
    and his Ogene Sound Super of Africa.
    Institute of Education, Library Service, Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria), 1992. 20 p.

    CONTENTS

    Title i
    Certification ii
    Dedication iii
    Acknowledgement iv
    Purpose v
    Scope vi
    Arrangement vi
    Source of Information vi
    Table of Contents viii

    Part One
    Introduction/Life Story 1
    Contributions to Music 5
    Philosophy of Life 10

    Part Two
    Compilation of Oliver De Coque’s Recordings 13

  • Bender, Wolfgang:
    Der nigerianische Highlife.
    Musik und Kunst in der populären Kultur der 50er und 60er Jahre.
    Wuppertal: Edition Trickster im Peter Hammer Verlag, 2007. 572 p.
    ISBN 978-3-7795-0061-2

    INHALT

    Zum Geleit xi
    Danksagung xiii

    1 Einleitung 1

    2 Die sozialhistorische Ausgangslage im britisch-kolonialen Westafrika der Nachkriegsjahre 25
    2.1 Die Kolonialgeschichte Britisch-Westafrikas bis zum
           Zweiten Weltkrieg 25
    2.2 Die Auswirkung des Krieges auf die Kolonien 26
    2.3 Die Folgen des Zweiten Weltkriegs für die britischen
           Territorien in Westafrika 33
    2.4 Die soziokulturelle Situation in Nigeria nach dem
           Zweiten Weltkrieg 39
    2.4.1 Religion und die Afrikanisierung des Christentums 39
    2.4.2 Die Kunst-,,Workshops” 43
    2.4.3 Literatur 46
    2.4.4 Theater 46

    3 Musik im kolonialen Britisch-Westafrika 53
    3.1 Großbritannien hat sich als Kolonialmacht fest etabliert 53
    3.2 Die überlieferte Musikpraxis 54
    3.3 Kirchenmusik und klassische Musik Europas 56
    3.4 Militärmusik 72
    3.5 Die europäische Tanzmusik 78
    3.5.1 Das Accra Orchestra 85
    3.5.2 Tanzmusik im Radio 87
    3.6 Frühe Plattenproduktion westafrikanischer Musik 87
    3.7 Die Auswirkung der Tonsprachen auf das Verhältnis
           von Text und Musik 91
    3.8 Musik und Tanz-Motionen 94

    4 Highlife in Nigeria 99
    4.1 Exkurs: Der Vater des nigerianischen Highlife: Bobby Benson 99
    4.1.1 Zur Biographie 99
    4.1.2 „Taxi Driver” 107
    4.1.3 Kritik an Bobby Benson  110
    4.1.4 Der Tod von Bobby Benson 114
    4.1.5 Zur diskographischen Forschung 118
    4.2 Ghanaischer versus nigerianischer Highlife 126
    4.2.1 Was ist Highlife? 126
    4.2.2 Woher kommt der Highlife? 130
    4.2.3 Nigerianischer Rundfunk und Ghana-Highlife 144
    4.3 Die Musik 146
    4.3.1 Die Stile 146
    4.3.2 Sprache der Lieder 147
    4.3.3 Instrumental Ausstattung 149
    4.3.4 Instrumentenbesitz 155
    4.3.5 Die innermusikalische Struktur des Highlife 158
    4.3.6 Plattenzeit und Spielzeit 163
    4.3.7 Das Klangbild des Highlife – Probleme der
              Klangwunschvorstellungen in der Plattenproduktion 166
    4.4 Die Musiker 168
    4.4.1 Musiker sein. Die soziale Position der Musiker 168
    4.4.2 Sex und Gender im Highlife 170
    4.4.3 Bandleader und Besetzungen 172
    4.4.4 Liste mit einer Auswahl der wichtigsten Musiker im 
               nigerianischen Highlife 175
    4.4.5 Professionalismus 176
    4.4.6 The Three Night Wizards 178
    4.4.7 Der Status 183
    4.4.8 Musiker-Namen 185
    4.5 Der Tanz 193
    4.5.1 Die Bewegungsabläufe 193
    4.5.2 Twist-Highlife als Tanz 205
    4.5.3 Tanzforschung 208
    4.6 Das Publikum 209
    4.6.1 Wer besuchte die Highlife-Lokale? 209
    4.6.2 Jagua Nana – Highlife in Lagos und die ,,Good-Time-Girls” 213
    4.6.3 Spraying 218
    4.6.4 Diskurs der Gäste 219
    4.7 Kleidung 220
    4.7.1 „National Dress” 220
    4.8 Die Orte 224
    4.8.1 Open-Air-Lokale 224
    4.8.2 West End Hotel und andere Lokale 228
    4.8.3 Schließung eines Tanzlokals 231
    4.8.4 Offizielle Anlässe und private Veranstaltungen 232
    4.9 Die Tonträger – Ihre Produktion und Vermarktung 233
    4.9.1 Grammophone 233
    4.9.2 Schallplatten 236
    4.9.3 Schallplattenpreise 236
    4.9.4 Plattengeschäfte 237
    4.9.5 Plattenfirmen 238
    4.9.6 Decca 241
    4.9.7 Badejo’s Sound Studios  243
    4.9.8 Ogunde Records 245
    4.9.9 Nigerphone und Werner Becker 247
    4.9.10 Philips West African Records — die
                diskographischen Forschungsergebnisse 254
    4.9.11 Die Highlife-Produktion der sechziger Jahre 258
    4.9.12 EMI-Fabrik in Jos 265
    4.9.13 Die neuen kleinen Labels nach der Unabhängigkeit 266
    4.9.14 Verhältnis der Musiker und Plattenfirmen 266
    4.9.15 Vermarktung 267
    4.10 Presse 271

    5 ,,Praise Culture” in Nigeria 273
    5.1 Die historischen Wurzeln der ,,Praise Culture” in Nigeria 273
    5.1.1 Die oriki der Yoruba 273
    5.1.2 Die Igbo-Minstrels 275
    5.1.3 Die Hausa-Maroka 276
    5.2 Das Preislied 279
    5.2.1 Preislieder und Politik 280
    5.2.2 Der populäre Diskurs zu Wahlkampfzeiten 284
    5.2.3 Sport und Titelkämpfe im Highlife 298
    5.2.4 Diskurs der Melomanen 303
    5.2.5 Preislieder als gesungener Nachruf 304
    5.3 “A Literature of the People, by the People, and for 
            the People” — Preisliteratur — Politische Hagiographie 309
    5.3.1 Populäre Literatur am Beispiel der ,,Onitsha-Heftchen” 309
    5.4 ,,The Art of Highlife” – Preismalerei 315
    5.4.1 Die Schildermaler 319
    5.4.2 Zur Sammlungslage 325
    5.4.3 Wer waren die Künstler? 326
    5.4.4 Der Weg vom Land in die Stadt 328
    5.4.5 Malerei als Bindeglied zwischen Musik, Mode und Frisuren 332
    5.5 Preiskleidung 335
    5.5.1 ,,Commemorative Cloth” (Erinnerungsstoff) 335
    5.5.2 Preisstoffe 338
    5.5.3 Frauen- und Männerkleidung 349
    5.5.4 Yoruba-gele 350
    5.5.5 Bedruckte Stoffe 351
    5.5.6 Aso Ebi 352
    5.6 Preisfrisuren 354
    5.6.1 Frisuren im populären Kontext 354
    5.6.2 Friseurschilder 354
    5.6.3 Die Bedeutung der Frisuren 355
    5.6.4 Namen der Frisuren 361

    6 Highlife im Kontext der ,,Praise Culture” – Die Glorifizierung der Politiker 369
    6.1 Thema I: LUMUMBA 371
    6.1.1 Patrice Lumumba als historische Persönlichkeit 371
    6.1.2 Der Lumumba-Mythos 373
    6.1.3 ,,The Late Lion of the Congo” 376
    6.1.4 Lumumba Songs 384
    6.1.5 Malerei 398
    6.1.6 Frisuren 400
    6.1.7 Textilien 401
    6.1.8 Die Lumumba-Verehrung 404
    6.2 Thema II: AZIKIWE 407
    6.2.1 Historische Persönlichkeit 407
    6.2.2 Der ,,Zik”-Mythos 412
    6.2.3 Azikiwe – Onitsha-Portraits 414
    6.2.4 Azikiwe-Lied 420
    6.2.5 Azikiwe-Kunst 431
    6.2.6 Frisuren und nationalistische Gesinnung 435
    6.2.7 Azikiwe-Stoffe  436
    6.2.8 Photographic 437
    6.3 Thema III: KENNEDY 438
    6.3.1 President Kennedy – Die
              historische Persönlichkeit 438
    6.3.2 Der Kennedy-Mythos 438
    6.3.3 Die Kennedy-Heftchen 440
    6.3.4 Die Kennedy-Liedtexte 444
    6.3.5 Die Kennedy-Bilder 447
    6.3.6 Die Kennedy-Frisuren 447
    6.3.7 Kennedy-Stoffe 448

    7 Resume 451

    Bibliographie 457

    Diskographie 475
    7″-Singles, 45 r.p.m.  475
    7″-Extended Play Singles (EPs), 45 r.p.m. 488
    10″-LPs, 33 r.p.m. 493
    12″-LPs, 33 r.p.m. 494

    Abbildungsverzeichnis 499

    Abbildungen 507

  • Bensignor, François:
    Fela – le Génie de l’afrobeat.
    Plogastel Saint-Germain: Editions Demi-Lune, 2012. 192 p.
    ISBN 978-2-917112-13-7

    TABLE DES MATIÈRES

    Préface 7
    Introduction 11

       I – Une ascendance prestigieuse 17
      II – La croix et le fouet 29
     III – Koola Lobitos : l’impasse de highlife jazz 37
      IV – L’Afrobeat prend vie 49
       V – Conscience rebelle : l’arme de l’Afrobeat 61
      VI – Entre provocation et résistance : le courage de dire 79
     VII – Héro de l’international underground 105
    VIII – Egypt 80 : le monde entend des voix 123
       IX – Afrobeat, l’arme du futur 141

    Annexes 153
    Glossaire 155
    Discographie sélective 161
    Bibliographie 175
    Ressources et liens Internet (webographie) 177
    Notes 179

  • Coker, ‘Niyi Jr.:
    A Study of the Music and Social Criticism of African Musician Fela Anikulapo-Kuti.
    Studies in the History and Interpretation of Music , Book 100. University of Michigan.
    Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 2004. xvi & 152 p.
    ISBN 978-0773-46520-6

    CONTENTS

    Foreword
    Preface
    Introduction

    1. Fela Ransome-Kuti
    2. Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and the Afrospot Years 1970-75
    3. Kalakuta Republic
    4. Movement of the People (M.O.P.)
    5. Discography

    References
    Index

  • Collins, E[dmund] J[ohn]:
    My Life, by Sir Victor Uwaifo. The Black Knight of Music Fame.
    Accra: Black Bell Publication, 1976. 46 p.
    ISBN N/A

    CONTENTS

    Note about the Editor 1

    1 Introduction 3
    2 My Early Years 8
    3 The Mature Musician 15
    4 Joromi 23
    5 Tours and Trips 28
        Tour to Northern Nigeria 28
        Grand Overseas Tour of 1973 33
    6 Life in General 40

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes.
    Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2009. 159 p.
    ISBN 978-9068-327-48-9

    CONTENTS

    Foreword 5
    About the author 10
    Introduction 11

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The birth of Afrobeat 15
    2 Joe Mensah remembers 23
    3 Fela in Ghana 27
    4 Stan Plange remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is born 37
    6 ‘JB’ talks about Fela 43
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 49
    8 The Black President 69
    9 Amsterdam and after 75

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 85
    11 Frank talk about Fela 93
    12 Obiba plays it again 101
    13 Smart Binete sorts it out 107
    14 Anku checks out the beat 109
    15 Nana Danso orchestrates 115
    16 Fela: the full works 123
    17 Interview with Fela 131
    18 Afterthoughts, updates and ‘Felabrations’ 139

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes. 2nd edition
    Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2015.  xii & 326 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8195-7539-5 (paper) 978-0-8195-7540-1 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Banning Eyre ix
    Introduction 1

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The Birth of Afrobeat 27
    2 Joe Mensah Remembers 41
    3 Fela in Ghana 49
    4 Stan Plange Remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is Born 67
    6 “JB” Talks about Fela 73
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 81
    8 The Black President 114
    9 Amsterdam and After 125

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 139
    11 Frank Talk about Fela 152
    12 Obiba Plays It Again 165
    13 Smart Binete Sorts It Out 174
    14 Anku Checks Out the Beat 178
    15 Nana Danso Orchestrates 183
    16 Some Early Afro-Fusion Pioneers 197
    17 Interview with Fela 204
    18 Afterthoughts and Updates 209
    19. Felabrations at Home and Abroad 238

    Chronology 259
    Notes 269
    Selected Bibliography 281
    Discography 285
    Appendix A: “Shuffering and Shmiling” Score 303
    Index 309

  • Emielu, Austin ‘Maro:
    Nigerian Highlife Music.
    Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization, 2013. xii & 252 p.
    ISBN 978-978511-561-1

    CONTENTS

    Dedication ii
    Foreword vii
    Acknowledgements x

    1. Introduction 13

    2. Popular Music in Nigeria 19
    Highlife Music and the BBC Radio Debate 38
    Notes 43

    3. The Social Construction of Highlife Music 44
    The Etymology of Highlife 48
    The Social Construction of Highlife 52
    Notes 56

    4. Historical Development of Nigerian Highlife Music 57
    Roots of Highlife Music 57
    The Pre-Independence Period (1950-1960) 62
    The Post-Independence Period (1960 —1970) 74
    The Post-Civil War (Oil Boom) Period (1970-1980) 86
    The Period of Economic Depression (1980-1990) 93
    The Last Decade of the 20th Century (1990-1999) 99
    Socio-Cultural Factors 103
    Political and Ideological Factors 106
    Economic Factors 108
    Educational and Religious Factors 109
    Notes 113

    5. Forms and Styles of Nigerian Highlife Music 115
    Rhythm 115
    Rhythmic Pattern A 116
    Rhythmic Pattern B 117
    Rhythmic Pattern C 118
    Melody 119
    Harmony 122
    Musical Texture 124
    The Highlife Form 126
    Content Analysis of Highlife Songs 127
    Classification of Nigerian Highlife 141
    Notes 149

    6. Nigerian Highlife Musicians 150

    7. Highlife Music in Contemporary Nigeria 178
    Highlife in South West Nigeria 179
    Highlife in the South South (Edo and Delta States) 184
    Highlife in the South East 186
    Highlife Music in Northern Nigeria 189
    Issues in the Revival and Sustenance of Highlife Music in Contemporary Nigeria 192
    Sustenance of Highlife as a Musical Style 193
    Sustaining Highlife as a Sociological Concept 198
    Sustaining Highlife as an Economic Product 201
    Sustaining the Ideology of Highlife 205
    The Generational Factor in Highlife Music 206
    Notes 210

    8. Social Reconstructionism: A New Theoretical Model 211
    The Stage of Social Construction 212
    The Stage of Social Deconstruction 213
    Stage of Social Reconstruction 215
    Towards a Social Reconstruction of Highlife Music 216

    Glossary 219
    Appendices 225
    Bibliography 232
    Discography 239
    Index 242

  • Idowu, Mabinuori Kayode:
    Fela le combattant.
    Bordeaux: Le Castor Astral, 2002. 141 p.
    ISBN 2-85920-488-1

    TABLE DES MATIÈRES

    Femi Kuti, l’heritier naturel – Interview 5

    Fela le combattant

    Preface 21

    Chapitre 1 L’histoire légendaire de la famille Kuti 25
    Chapitre 2 Koola Lobitos 33
    Chapitre 3 La république de Kalakuta 45
    Chapitre 4 Berlin 1978 : rencontre avec le public occidental 61
    Chapitre 5 Eko-Lagos 69
    Chapitre 6 J’ai un doctorat de bon sens 79
    Chapitre 7 Pas de remerciements pour le gouvernement  95
    Chapitre 8 L’héritage de Fela 109

    Discographie 121
    Lexique 133

  • Idowu, Mabinuori Kayode:
    Fela – Phenomenon & Legacy.
    Paris: Black Art Production, 2012. 524 p.
    ISBN 978-2-9543674-0-8

    CONTENTS

     1. Preface 6
     2. No Agreement 21
     3. Colo-Mentality 40
     4. Eko Ile (Lagos Sweet Home) 54
     5. Viva Nigeria! Viva Africa! 78
     6. Chief Priest Say 91
     7. Alagbonclose 100
     8. Expensive Shit 113
     9. Kalakuta Show 120
    10. Young African Pioneers 130
    11. Second World Black Festival of Arts and Culture (Festac) 149
    12. Unknown Soldier 183
    13. Coffin for Head of State 227
    14. The Ikeja Africa Shrine 249
    15. Teacher Don’t Teach Me Nonsense 272
    16. Look and Laugh 302
    17. Beasts of No Nation 330
    18. Underground System 371
    19. The Fela Phenomenon 382
    20. Femi Anikulapo-Kuti  414
    21. Seun Anikulapo-Kuti Egpypt 80 427
    22. Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra 431
    23. Coup de Gueule (Fit of Rage) 435
    24. Felabration: One of the Solutions 445
    25. Discography 452

  • Ige, Clement & Femi Abulude:
    Hooked to Music. King Sunny Ade’s Own Story.
    Ibadan: Distinct Publications, 1996. 101 p.
    ISBN 978-32376-2-4

    CONTENTS

     1. Stranded at Abeokuta 4
     2. Hooked to music 11
     3. The Master Guitarist as the Pacesetter 23
     4. Major influences in my music 30
     5. The music business and the fans 35
     6. The Press and my Crown 45
     7. The King of Kings 51
     8. Christ as my Cornerstone 72
     9. KSA Foundation 75
    10. Words on Marble 79
    11. The Trail Blazer 86

    The 68th Guitarist in the world 100

  • Ita, Chief Bassey:
    Jazz in Nigeria. An Outline Cultural History.
    Calabar & Lagos: Radical House Publication, 1984. 99 p.
    ISBN N/A

    CONTENTS

    Introduction  5

    Part 1
    Chapter 1 The African Roots of Jazz 7
    Chapter 2 The Jazz Bug Eats Deep 13
    Chapter 3 Return Of Bobby Benson 18
    Chapter 4 No Bebop Posture Here! 25
    Chapter 5 Visitor and Festivals 37
    Chapter 6 1960’s and Great Experiments 45

    Gallery 49-56

    Part 2
    Chapter 7 Jazz around the World 64

    Part 3
    Chapter 8 The Jazz-Derived Music of the Young 69

    Postscript  95

  • Moore, Carlos:
    Fela, Fela. This Bitch of a Life.
    London: Allison & Busby, 1982. 287 p.
    ISBN 0-85031-464-X

    CONTENTS

     Afa Ojo, She Who Commands Rain 22

     1 Abiku, The Twice-Born 29
     2 Three Thousand Strokes 35
     3 Funmilayo, “Give Me Happiness” 41
     4 Hello, Life! Goodbye, Daudu 48
     5 J.K. Braimah – My Man Fela 55
     6 A Long Way From Home 61
     7 Remi, The One With the Beautiful Face 67
     8 From Highlife Jazz to Afro-Beat 73
     9 Lost and Found in the Jungle of Skyscrapers 81
    10 Sandra 91
    11 The Birth of Kalakuta Republic 109
    12 J.K. Braimah – The Reunion 115
    13 Alagbon Close 119
    14 From Adewusi to Obasanjo 129
    15 The Sack of Kalakuta 135
    16 Shuffering and Shmiling 142
    17 Why I Was Deported from Ghana 147
    18 My Second Marriage 156
    19 My Queens 163
    20 What Woman is to Me 234
    21 My Mother’s Death 239
    22 Men, Gods and Spirits 246
    23 This Motherfucking Life 255

    Afa Ojo, She Who Commands Rain 270

    Discography 285

  • Ngoladi, Uzor:
    Seun Kuti : Inside Kalakuta & Within Afrobeat.
    Ibeju Lekki: Strategia Blast International Ltd., Nigeria 2012. xiii & 202p.
    ISBN 978-9789-29337-7

    CONTENTS

    Dedication
    Introduction
    Foreword
    Preface

    Chapter One Life begins at Kalakuta Republic
    Chapter Two Early skill development at Afrika Shrine
    Chapter Three The Kuti Dynasty
    Chapter Four Afrobeat: The Macabre Dance
    Chapter Five Egypt 80 and maturity
    Chapter Six Honing musical skill in Liverpool
    Chapter Seven From stage to studio: The albums
    Chapter Eight Bad government: Activism through music
    Chapter Nine Love for ‘Good Leaf’
    Chapter Ten World musical tours
    Chapter Eleven New Afrika Shrine
    Chapter Twelve Fela! On Broadway
    Chapter Thirteen Lekan Animasaun (Baba Ani)
    Chapter Fourteen Motunrayo Kuti
    Chapter Fifteen Oloye (Band Manager)
    Chapter Sixteen Keith Richards
    Chapter Seventeen Talking to the media
    Chapter Eighteen Women in Afrobeat
    Chapter Nineteen The future of Afrobeat
    Chapter Twenty Matters Arising

    References

  • Oreoluwa, Ogunbowale Mopelolade:
    “In the Ghetto, Life No Easy For We”:
    The Construction and Negotiation of Identity in Ajegunle Raga.

    M.A. University of Guelph (Ontario), 2012. x & 98 p.

    CONTENTS

    Cover page i
    Abstract ii
    Map iii
    Acknowledgement iv- vi
    Table of Content vii
    List of Tables viii
    List of Figures ix
    List of Nomenclature x

    Chapter One
    Introduction 1
    Chapter Two
    Review of Literature 9
    Chapter Three
    Sources and Fieldwork 21
    Chapter Four
    History of Ajegunle Raga and Popular Music in Nigeria 25
    Chapter Five
    Construction and Negotiation of Identity in Ajegunle Raga 48

    Conclusion and Recommendation 85

    Bibliography 88
    Oral Interviews and Discography 94

  • Okafor, Richard C.; Afam Nwokike; Cosmas Eziechi  & Jonathan Egudu (eds.):
    The Life and Works of Celestine Ukwu.
    Enugu: New Generation Book, 1999. 158 p.
    ISBN 978-2900-39-7

    CONTENTS

    Dedication iii
    Foreword iv
    Preface vi
    Notes on the Authors viii

    Chapter I
    Family and Musical Background 1

    Chapter II
    The Lyrics of Celestine’s Songs 6
    i.     Ejina Uwa anya Isi (Do Not Boast of What You Have)
    ii.    O-bialu-be-onye (A Guest)
    iii.   Okwukwe na Nchekwube (Faith and Hope)
    iv.    Mma anyi egbuna anyi (May our kindness not lead us to doom)
    v.     Mmefie adiro, Mgbayalu ama adi (No offence, No forgiveness)
    vi.     Ilo abu Chi (The Enemy/Foe is not God)
    vii.    Eji m Nk’Onye? (Whose Share Have I taken?)
    viii.   Ome Ife Jide Ofo Part I 
             (Whoever acts should act righteously, Part I)
    ix.      I ma Echi? (Do you know Tomorrow?)
    x.       Asili (Gossip)
    xi.      Uso Ndu (Sweetness of Life)
    xii.     Onwunwa (Temptation)
    xiii.    Ife si na Chi (Destiny)
    xiv.    Ije Enu (Life’s Journey)
    xv.     Ilo Oyi (Betrayal among Friends)
    xvi.    Uwa bu Olili (Life is a Social Call/Sojourn)
    xvii.   Onye akwana Uwa (Let none Bemoan the World)
    xviii.  Onwu bu Ugwo (Death is a Debt)
    xix.    Akwa a na-ebelu ego (The Worries Over Money)
    xx.     Jisie Ike (Keep on Trying)
    xxi.    Ome Ife Jide Ofo, Part II 
              (Whoever Acts should be Upright Part II)
    xxii.    Ndu bulu Ililo (If Life were Weed)
    xxiii.   Uche Chukwu Ka (God’s will is Supreme)
    xxiv.   Ego Eju Aka (Money never Suffices)
    xxv.    Onwu ama Eze (Death knows no king)
    xxvi.    Ife Uwa adi agwu agwu (Earthly things are inexhaustible)
    xxvii.   Ndu ka Aku (Life is greater than Wealth)
    xxviii.  Chi ji Oke (God Is The Distributor)
    xxix.    Ngozi Chukwu Ka (God’s Blessing is Supreme)
    xxx.     Okwu Eji N’elo (Matters of Mutual Agreement)
    xxxi.    Uwem Eriri Mbot Emi (Efik) – Life in this World
    xxxii.   Ebe Mi o (Efik) – My husband
    xxxiii.  Tomorrow is so Uncertain
    xxxiv.  Man Proposes And God Disposes
    xxxv.   Artificial Beauty
    xxxvi.  No condition is Permanent
    xxxvii.  Grade by Grade
    xxxviii. Money Palaver
    xxxix.   Hail, Biafra!

    Chapter III
    Celestine Ukwu: The Philosopher 93

    Chapter IV
    Celestine as an Educator 106

    Chapter V
    Characteristics of Celestine Ukwu’s Music 111
    i.     His compositional techniques
    ii.    Instrumentation
    iii.   Structure
    iv.   Language Delivery Style
    v.    Themes
    vi.   Performance
    vii.  Costumes
    viii. Relationship with his musicians
            a. Chi na Elo
            b. Uche Chukwu
    ix.    Dance Styles
    x.     Igede
    xi.    Songs  – See Appendix

    Chapter VI
    In Memoriam 126
    i. Tribute to Celestine Ukwu by the Celestine
        Ukwu Memorial Dance Band – CUMB
    ii. Liner Notes on Album by Benson Idonije
    iii. Tribute in Daily Star – “Celestine Ukwu dies in Crash”
    iv. Tribute by his Brother, Damian Ukwu
    v. “Adieu Celestine Ukwu” by Obi Anene in Sunday Observer
    vi. “Terrible road crash – Celestine Ukwu killed”
          in the Nigerian Mirror
    vii. “Musician Celescine Ukwu killed in Crash”
           by Dennis Okiali in the Nigerian Observer

    Appendix – Some of his Transcribed Songs 135
    a. O-bialu-be-onye
    b. Onye Akwana Uwa
    c. Ije Enu
    d. Ho abu Chi
    e. Ife uwa adi agwu agwu
    f. Uwa by Olili
    g. Hail, Biafra!
    h. Grade by Grade

    Bibliography 146

    Discography 153

  • Okagbare, Benson Corporo:
    Songs of I. K. Dairo, MBE and his Blue Spots (with Plates) with Commentaries in English.
    Lagos: The Author. Printed by Nigeria National Press, Apapa, 1969. ix & 134 p.
    ISBN N/A

    CONTENTS

    Preface  ix
    Yoruba: Language and Culture 1

    A Short Biography of I. K. Dairo 2

    Alphabetical List of Songs and Commentaries
     
     1. Á Yẹ wá Kalẹ́ 9
     2. Á Yẹ wá Á Rọ̀ Wá Lọ́rùn 10
     3. Adé Orí Mi 12
     4. Adeyinka Adebayọ (Col.) 13
     5. Àdúrà Blue Spot 15
     6. Ayé Fòtítọ́ Pamọ́ 16
     7. Àjòjì Ni Mo Jẹ́ Nílẹ̀ Yìí 17
     8. Àlàáfíà 18
     9. Allau Mọ Sọli 19
    10. Angelina O Ti Lọ Wà Jù 20
    11. Awólọ́wọ̀ (Chief) 22
    12. Baba Da Mi Lare 24
    13. Baba Mi Nígbà Tí Mo Bá Ṣáko Lọ 26
    14. Baba Olú Ọ̀run 28
    15. Baba Wa Lókè A Dúpẹ́ 29
    16. Bakare, S.B. (Chief) 30
    17. Baby Má Gbé Ìyẹn Wá 31
    18. Bèbè Yìí Ga 33
    19. Bẹ̀nàtadé 34
    20. Benjamin Adekunle (Col.) 35
    21. Bóńfò 37
    22. Do Sisi 38
    23. E Mami 39
    24. Èjìrẹ́ Ará Ìsokùn 41
    25. Èmi Ahun 42
    26. Èmi Ìbá Lẹ́gbẹ̀rún Ahọ́n 44
    27. Ẹ Má Mọ́bùn Ṣaya 45
    28. Ẹ̀kún Rẹ́rẹ́ 47
    29. Ẹyẹ Mélòó Tòlòǹgò Wáyé 48
    30. Ẹlẹ́lẹ Turẹ 49
    31.  Ẹlẹlẹ Mù Túrẹ 51
    32. Ẹri Moha Ye Mi 52
    33. Fọ̀nà Hàn Mí 54
    34. Gbogbo Nàìjíríà Gbójú Sókè 56
    35. Gown, Yakubu, Major-General 58
    36. I Remember My darling 59
    37. Igbá Ilé, Ma Mú Ṣoge 60
    38. Ìgéréye Ìlò 61
    39. Ijó Ọlọ́mọ 62
    40. Ikú Yẹ̀ Lórí Mi 63
    41. Ire Ni O 64
    42. Iṣẹ́ Ajé 65
    43. Iṣẹ́ Ọwọ́ Mi Mò Ń Jẹ 71
    44. Ìyàwó Oníwàkìwà 72
    45. Jẹ́ Ká Sọ́ra 73
    46. Káyé Má Ṣelénìní Mi 75
    47. Kọlawọle Balogun (Chief) 76
    48. Kúlúsọ 78
    49. Làbútú Yẹkẹ 79
    50. Ladejọla Oginni 80
    51. Ladejọla Oginni (Late) 82
    52. Lawrence Ọmọle 84
    53. Màá Bá Ẹ Ṣorò Ilé 85
    54. Ma Oyro Ghana Fo 86
    55. Méè Fáya Ọba 87
    56. Mo Fara Mi Fún Ọ 88
    57. Mo Gbójú Lé Bàbá Lókè 89
    58. Ǹǹlẹ́ Mọ Ọwá 90
    59. Olúwa Á Da 91
    60. Olúwa Rẹ Àwọn Elẹ́gàn Lẹ́kún 93
    61. Ojú mọ́ Mi Sí Pèré Òde 94
    62. Omí Ọpọ́n 96
    63. Onílé Gogoro 97
    64. Òréke Lẹ́wà 99
    65. Orí mi Má Fi mí Fáráyé Mú 100
    66. Orilonise 102
    67. Owo Ati Omo Niyi Aiye 103
    68. Owo Wù Mí 104
    69. Owuro Lawa  105
    70. Oyín Mọmọ Àdò 107
    71. Ọkàn Mi Yin Ọba Ọ̀run 108
    72. Ọkàn Mi Yọ̀ Nínú Olúwa 110
    73. Ọmọ Alárọ́ 111
    74. Ọmọ Ọlọ́jà 113
    75. Ọmọge 114
    76. Ọwá Obòkun II 115
    77. Porogún ilá 117
    78. Rebecca 118
    79. Rọra Fẹ̀sọ̀ Jayé 119
    80. Rosana 121
    81. Salomẹ 123
    82. Ṣe rere Fún Mi 124
    83. Shonibarẹ, late Chief 125
    84. Taxi Driver 126
    85. Tètè gbéra 127
    86. Tíná Bá Wọlé, Òkùnkùn á Paradà 129
    87. Wobuta Koyọ I 131
    88. Wobuta Koyọ II 132

  • Oladipo-Ola, Jawi:
    Fela Anikulapo-Kuti. The Primary Man of an African Personality. The Narrative and Screenplay.
    Osogbo: Frontpage Media, 2011. 130 p.
    ISBN 978-978-49986-3-5

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgment iv
    Introduction v – viii

    The Script (Narrative) 1 -14
    Screenplay 15 -129

    All incidents and scenes in the Screenplay took place in its originality.
    But the names could be coincidental.

  • Olaniyan, Tejumola:
    Arrest the Music! Fela and His Rebel Art and Music.
    Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2004. 239 p.
    ISBN 0-253-34461-1 (cloth) 0-253-21718-0 (pbk)

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments   ix

     1. Introduction: “Living in the Interregnum”:
         Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and the Postcolonial Incredible 1
     2. The “Apolitical” Avant-Pop Hustler   7
     3. The Afrobeat Moralist 24
     4. Dissident Tunes: The Political Afrobeat 50
     5. Fela, Lagos, and the Postcolonial State 87
     6. On the Shop Floor: The Social Production of Afrobeat 108
     7. Pedagogue, Pedagogy, and the Pedagogic Form 145
     8. The Cosmopolitan Nativist:
         Fela and the Antinomies of Postcolonial Modernity 157
     9. The Political, The Libidinal 166
    10.  Conclusion: Afrobeat after Fela 175

    Notes191
    Bibliography 219
    Discography 229
    General Index 233
    Song Index 241

  • Olatunji, Babatunde with Robert Atkinson:
    The Beat of My Drum. An Autobiography.
    Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2005. 247 p.
    ISBN 1-59213-354-1 (pbk) 1-59213-353-3 (cloth)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Joan Baez vii

    Introduction by Eric Charry 1
    Bibliography 20
    Discography/ Videography/ Webography 22

    Part One – Learning the Rhythm
    1 The Spirit of Drumming 29
    2 Yorubaland 43
    3 From Lagos to Atlanta 75

    Part Two – Adapting to a New Rhythm
    4 Jim Crow and College Life 91
    5 Harlem on My Mind 123
    6 Drums of Passion 136

    Part Three – Passing the Rhythm On
    7 Social Change and Civil Rights 163
    8 World Music Comes of Age 193
    9 Voices of Africa 213

    Afterword by Robert Atkinson 237
    Index 243

    Photograph gallery follows page 122

  • Olorunyomi, Sola:
    Afrobeat! Fela and the Imagined Continent.
    Trenton, N.J.:  Africa World Press, 2003. 288 p.
    ISBN 1-59221-072-4

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix
    Glossary xiii
    Introduction xix

    1. Tradition and Afrobeat 1
    2. Bard of the Public Sphere 33
    3. The Empire Sounds Back 81
    4. Idán, or a Carnivalesque 127
    5. Alterity, Afrobeat and the Law 173
    6. The Afrobeat Continuum 211

    Bibliography 221

    Appendices 237
    Discography 237
    Excerpts from the Constitution of the
    Movement of the People (MOP) 254
    Biodata/Inventory of Sonic Censorship 256

    Photographs 265
    Index 275

  • Omojola, Bode:
    Popular Music in Western Nigeria: Theme, Style and Patronage System.
    Ibadan: Institut Français de Recherché en Afrique (IFRA Ibadan), 2006. 166p.
    ISBN 978-8025-11-5
    Reprint
    Ibadan: Institut Français de Recherché en Afrique (IFRA Nigeria),  2014. 166 p.
    ISBN 979-10-92312-23-2

    CONTENTS

    Foreword vii
    Preface ix

    1. Introduction 1
    Defining Popular Music: Western Models and African Perspectives 1
    Definition and Scope 6
    Focus on Western Nigeria 8

    2. Cultural and Social Identity in Nigerian Traditional Music 11
    Indigenous Concepts 13
    Contexts of Music Making 17
    The Status of Musicians 25
    Sound and Instrumental Resources 29
    Ensemble Organisation 33
    Quality of the Singing Voice 37
    Music and Dance 38

    3. Historical and Cultural Background of Popular Music in Western Nigeria 43
    Traditional Antecedents 43
    Impact of European Music 45
    Early Forms and Pioneering Performers 46
    Islam and Popular Music in Western Nigeria 49

    4. Musical Style and Social Themes 53
    The Highlife 53
    Juju Music 54
    The Trio of Juju: Ebenezer Obey, Sunny Ade and Shina Peters 54
    Style in Juju Music 70
    Juju and the Nigerian Society  71
    From Ramadan call to Popular Music: Waka, Sakara, Apala and Fuji 72
    The Social Dynamics of Fuji Music 76
    Post-Colonial Dynamics in Fela Anikulapo-Kuti’s Afro-Beat 78
    Lagbaja: Moderate Politics, Great Music 86

    5. Nightclubs and Popular Music 93
    The London Connection 93
    Music in Nigerian Night-Clubs: Socio-Aesthetic Currents 97
    Declining Patronage of Night Club Music in Western Nigeria 102

    6. Analysis and Conclusion: between Live Music and ‘Frozen’ Music 119
    The ‘Invasion’ of Juju and Fuji 120
    Aesthetics and lyrics 122
    Home Entertainment 124
    From Adult Music to Youthful Hip-Hop 126
    Religious Factors 128
    Popular Music and Social Dynamics in Western Nigeria 130

    Bibliography 133
    Discography 139
    Appendix I 144
    Index 158

     

  • Omojola, Bode:
    Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century. Identity, Agency, and Performance Practice.
    Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2012. 285 p. & CD
    ISBN 978-1-58046-493-2

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    Introduction 1

    1 Yorùbá Drumming: 
       Performance Practice and the Politics of Identity 16
    2 Talking and Stammering:
        Toward an Analysis of Yorùbá Drumming 46
    3 Songs of the King’s Wives:
        Gendered and Social Identities in Yorùbá Vocal Performance 70
    4 The Aírégbé Song Tradition of Yorùbá Female Chiefs 91
    5 Yorùbá Music in the Christian Liturgy:
        Notation, Performance, and Identity 113
    6 Yorùbá Music in Christian Worship:
        The Aládŭrà Church 136
    7 Yorùbá Popular Music:
        Hybridity, Identity, and Power 162
    8 Yorùbá Islamic Popular Music 204

    Conclusion 221

    Appendixes
    A Fieldwork 231
    B Accompanying Compact Disc Track List 234

    Notes 235
    Selected Discography and Videography 255
    Bibliography 259
    Index 273

  • Onwuegbuna, Ikenna Emmanuel:
    Trends in African Popular Music.
    Socio-Cultural Interactions and the Reggae Genre in Nigeria.
    Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris, 2015. 132 p.
    ISBN 978-1-5035-8791-5 / 978-1-5035-8790-8 (eBook)

    CONTENTS

    Title Page i
    Dedication vii
    Foreword Ix
    Preface xi
    Acknowledgments xiii
    Introduction xv

    1. Prelude 1
    Our Aspiration 1
    Problematizing the Issues 2
    Justifying the Rationale 3
    The Implication 4

    2. Socio-Cultural Interactions 6
    Socio-musical Events 7
    Functional Popular Music 13
    Nigerian Reggae Music 15

    3. Defining Popular Music 17
    Definitions According to Specifics 18
    Stylistic Definition 18
    Sociological Definition 19
    Process-based Definition 20
    Theory-based Definition 22
    African Popular Music 24
    Ethnic Pop 26
    Interethnic Pop 28
    International Pop 29

    4. The Reggae Genre 31
    History and Etymology of Reggae 31
    Growth and Spread of the Genre 37
    Development of Various Sub-Genres 41
    Modern Trends in Reggae Music 44
    Nature and Features of Reggae 46

    5. The Nigerian Reggae Scene 50
    The Period between 1960 and 1980 51
    The Period between 1980 and 2000 54
    Nigerian Reggae in the Present Millennium 56
    A Brief on Sonny Okosuns – the Pioneer Exponent 59

    6. Reflections 64
    Approaches to Pop Music Analysis 66
    Musical Approach 66
    Socio-Cultural Approach 104
    Ideological Approach 108
    Historical Approach 112
    Problems of Popular Music Studies 113
    Suggested Solutions to the Problems 117
    Recommendations and Prospects 119
    Summary and Conclusion 121

    Fig. 1: A basic reggae rhythm – emphasizing 
               the ‘one drop’ pattern 46
    Fig. 2: A representative score of 
               Sonny Okosuns’ Help 71
    Fig. 3: A representative score of Majek Fashek’s 
               Send Down The Rain 86
    Fig. 4: A representative score of Evi-Edna Ogholi’s 
               One Kilometre 102

    Discography 123
    Filmography 125
    References 127

  • Opesanwo, Gbenga & Segun Ogunkoya:
    I. K. Dairo  M.B.E.: The Man, the Myth and the Blue Spots.
    Abeokuta: Kunle Alayande Printing and Publishing Co., 1992. xii & 140 p.
    ISBN 978-2810-08-8

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgment iii
    Foreword vi
    Introduction vii

    The Early Years 1
    Life at School 4
    10 – 20 Years, Life Out Of School/Afonta 6
    Dairo As Labourer 7
    Talking of Juju Music 9
    Tracing Dairo’s Musical Career 11
    Morning Star Orchestra 16
    Dairo and the first Blue Spot Band 16
    Second Blue Spot Band 20
    Touring 23
    America and North America Musical Tour – 27 Days 33
    North American Musical Tour 38
    When the Chips Are Down 43
    Musical Boomtime 47
    Award Of M.B.E. – The Biggest Story 49
    The Man Dairo and His Music 75
    The Ultimate Musician 91
    Dairo as an Apostle (C&S Holy Order) 99
    Dairo as a Music Star 106
    How Newspapers, Radio and TV See Him 106
    Overview of Songs of I. K. Dairo (Old and New) 114
    What is the Future of Juju Music in Nigeria 133

    Books on Dairo 134

  • Oreoluwa, Kuponiyi Aderiyike:
    Code-Switching in Contemporary Nigerian Hip Hop Songs.
    M.A. University of Ghana (Legon), 2013 vi & 95 p.

    CONTENTS

    Declaration i
    Dedication ii
    Acknowledgements iii
    Abstract iv
    Table of contents v

    Chapter 1
    Introduction 1
    1.1 Introduction 1
    1.2 Statement of the problem 2
    1.3 Purpose of study 3
    1.4 Hip hop culture 4
    1.5 Hip hop in Nigeria 6
    1.6 Code switching in hip hop 7
    1.7 Limitatations 11

    Chapter 2
    Literature review 12
    2.1 Code-switching 12
    2.2 Borrowing 19

    Chapter 3
    Theoretical framework and methodology 20
    3.1 Theoretical framework 20
    3.2 The markedness model 21
    3.3 Methodology 23
       3.3.1 Selecting the sample 23
       3.3.2 Transcription 24
       3.3.3 Justification of the selected model 24
    3.4 Background information on the selected artist 25
       3.4.1 D’banj 25
       3.4.2 9ice 26
       3.4.3 P Square 26
       3.4.4 Wande Coal 27
       3.4.5 Tiwa Savage 27

    Chapter 4
    Data analysis 28
    4.1 Background information on the data 28
    4.2 SONG 1 30
    4.3 SONG 2 36
    4.4 SONG 3 41
    4.5 SONG 4 44
    4.6 SONG 5 47

    Chapter 5
    Conclusion 50
    5.1 Summary of major findings 50
    5.2 Recommendations 51
    5.3 Conclusion 51

    References 52

    Appendices 54

  • Schoonmaker, Trevor:
    Fela. From West Africa to West Broadway.
    New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 212 p.
    ISBN 1-4039-6210-3 (pbk.) 1-4039-6209-x (cloth)
    Reprint
    Houghton, South Africa: Jacana Media, 2004. 212 p.
    ISBN 1-919931-76-7

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    Trevor Schoonmaker
    Introduction 1

    Knox Robinson
    The Father, the Sons, and the Holy Ghost 10
    Mabinuori Kayode Idowu, aka I. D.
    African Who Sang and Saw Tomorrow  16
    Joseph Patel
    Power Music, Electric Revival: Fela Kuti and the Influence of His Afrobeat on Hip-Hop and Dance Music 25
    Vivien Goldman
    Resurrection Shuffle 36
    Femi Anikulapo-Kuti and Jérôme Sandlarz
    Interview 41
    Ghariokwu Lemi
    Producing Fela’s Album Jackets 51
    John Collins
    Fela and the Black President Film: A Diary 55
    Dele Jegede
    Dis Fela Sef! – Fela in Lagos 78
    Vivien Goldman
    Thinking Africa: Afrobeat Aesthetic and the Dancing Queens 103
    LaRay Denzer
    Fela, Women, Wives 111
    Nkiru Nzegwu
    School Days in Lagos -Fela, Lady, and “Acada” Girls 135
    Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and Barney Hoskyns
    Interview 149
    Sola Olorunyomi
    On Whose Side are the Orisa (gods)? 157
    Yomi Durotoye
    Roforofo Fight: Fela’s Resistance of Domination 172

    Fela Timeline 197
    Map of Nigeria 203
    Index 205

  • Servant, Jean-Christophe:
    “Which way Nigeria?” Music under Threat:
    A Question of Money, Morality, Self-Censorship and Sharia.

    Copenhagen: Freemuse,  2003. 88p.
    ISSN 1601-2127

    CONTENTS

    Preface 5
    Abstract 7
    About the Author 8
    Map 9
    Introduction 11

    1 The Years of Democrazy: 1999-2002 15

    2 General Background on Nigeria
    2.1 Religion 17
    2.2 Politics 19
    2.3 Justice 20
    2.4 Freedom of expression 22
    2.5 Women’s rights 24

    3 Nigerian Music
    3.1 Introduction 26
    3.2 From palm wine to juju: 1920-1960 27
    3.3 From highlife to civil war: 1960-1971 29
    3.4 The Golden Age: 1972-1976 31
    3.5 The Eighties: The end of the major record labels 33
    3.6 The Nineties: Fuji style 36
    3.7 2002: From galala to Afro hip-hop 37

    4 No Money, no Voice: When Capitalism 
        Intrudes on Freedom of Expression in Lagos

    4.1 Introduction: The limits of democracy 41
    4.2 Economic laissez-faire and payola 42
    4.3 Piracy: The silent war 46
    4.4 Fear and violence: Music under siege 47
    4.5 Praise singing: Economic death or spiritual slavery? 50
    4.6 Religion versus music: Self-censorship, pressure groups 
          and bans in Lagos 54

    5 Case Study: Femi Kuti – the Banning of ‘Bang, Bang, Bang’
    5.1 Biography of Femi Kuti 56
    5.1.1 NBC vs. Femi Kuti 59

    6 Gangsta Rap and Makossa
    6.1 High moral grounds versus the ‘Music of the Devil’ 65

    7 Shariaphrenia
    7.1 Harassment, censorship and violence in northern Nigeria 69
    7.2 Music in the North 71

    8 Case Study: Katsina State
    Hisbas versus Hausa musicians;
    Alhaji Sirajo Mai Asharalle 73

    9 Case Study: Kano State
    Sani Dan Indo, Haladji Waba Yarim Asharalle 76

    10 Kano State Censorship Board
    A protection for Hausa musicians? 79

    11 Sabon Gari: The fear of the unknown 82

    12 Conclusion and Recommendations 84

    13 Bibliography 88

  • Thomas, T. Ajayi:
    History of Juju Music. A History of a Popular Music from Nigeria.
    Jamaica, N.Y.: Thomas Organization, 1992. 170 p. & video, 3 audio cassettes or CDs
    ISBN 0-9633261-0-4

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement 1
    The Author 3
    Introduction 6

    Chapter 1
    Lagos 14
    1.1 Ogun Ahoyaya 19
    Chapter 2
    The Missionaries 28
    Chapter 3
    “Juju” 32
    Chapter 4
    1900-1910 39
    Chapter 5
    The Eleko Affair 44
    5.1 The Oluwa Landcase 49
    Chapter 6
    1920s-1940s 54
    Chapter 7
    Popular Music Types 70
    Chapter 8
    1930s-1940s 76
    8.1 Ogun Ajakaiye Keji 79
    Chapter 9
    1940s-1950s 87
    9.1 The 1950s – A Tumultuos Dedade 90
    Chapter 10
    The 1960s 96
    10.1 The Challenge Cup 107
    10.2 Post-War Lagos 112
    Chapter 11
    The 1970s – A Dedade of Two Rivals 115
    Chapter 12
    Juju Music Came to International Prominence 118

    Milestones
    Tunde King 121
    Akanbi Wright 125
    Theophilus Iwalokun  128
    Ayinde Bakare 129
    I.K. Dairo 132
    Dele Ojo 134
    Jesus Nwanchuku 138
    Tunde Nightingale 140
    Sunny Ade 142

    Special Mention
    Togo Lawson 147
    Tunde Nightingale 149
    Jofabro 152
    Seigneurial Right, the Hausas and the
    Colonial Government 155
    Musulumi  160

    Chronology 161
    Epilogue  170

     

    Selections of Juju Music Recordings (and other contemporary music) from the 1930s to the 1950s Vol. 1

    The 1930s
     1. Oba Oyinbo – Tunde King (1936)
     2. Dunia – Tunde King (1936)
     3. Orin Asape Eko – Irewolede Denge (1937)
     4. Ojo Davies – Ayinde Bakare (1937 )
     5. In The Public Interest Of The Club
         – Nigerian Jolly Boys Orchestra (1938)
     6. Atari Ajanaku – Nigerian Jolly Boys Orchestra (1938)
    The 1940s
     7. Mo Ti Boko De Calabar – Julius Olofin and His Group
     8. Pepeiye Orugbandudu
         – Piccolo Pete and His Congo Abana Band
     9. Which side money dey
         – Piccolo Pete and His Congo Abana Band
    The 1950s
    10. Golden Faces – Ayinde Bakare
    11. Isau Adewale – Ayinde Bakare
    12. Se Bo ti mo – J.O. Oyesiku
    13. Brother Joe – J.O. Oyesiku
    14. Awolowo – Ojoge Daniel
    15. Orere ma redi – J.O. Araba
    16. Turaka – J.O. Araba
    17. Ogedengbe – Suberu Oni
    18. Olomo lo lehin – Suberu Oni
    19. Why worry lawa wa – Suberu Oni
    20. Iyawo Oniwakiwa – I.K. Dairo
    21. Lawrence Omole – I.K. Dairo
    22. Awon Agbagba Ondo – Adetunji Ondo Orchestra
    23. Ma majo Konba – Adetunji Ondo Orchestra
    24. Obanla – F.A. Jimmy West
    25. Awa sope – F.A. Jimmy West

    Selections of Juju Music Recordings
    from the 1960s to the 1990s Vol. 2

    The 1960s
     1. Eni Afe Lamo – Dele Ojo
     2. I Don’t Know Why She Loves Me – Dele Ojo
     3. Enia bi aparo – Dele Ojo
     4. Sekere Alafin – Tunde Nightingale
     5. A Gbogungboro – Tunde Nightingale
     6. Chief Aruwajoye – Irewolede Denge
     7. Aya Rere Pada Wale – Igbekele Gede
    The 1970s
     9.  Ibikunle Alakija – Ayinde Bakare
    10. J.K. Randle – Ayinde Bakare
    11. Iwalewa – Ayinde Bakare
    12. Sisi Jaiyejaiye – Fatayi Rolling Dollar
    13. Saworo – Fatayi Rolling Dollar
    The 1980s
    14. Freedom for all Black People – Dele Ojo
    The 1990s
    15. Awa Ewe Iwoyi – Ebenezer Obey
    16. Iyawo – Sunny Ade

    Chronology of the Evolution of Juju Music, its Competitors and Players from the 1930s to the 1990s Vol. 3

    1. Awa O Sise (We are on strike)
    2. Elemu (The palm-wine tapper)
    1. & 2. Compositions of Togo Lawson  (He died without making recording of any of his many compositions).
    3. Owo Nbo (Money is coming)
    4. Pada Lehin Mi (Get back behind me)
    5. Otutu Ki Meja (Fish never feels cold)
    3.-5. Compositions of Irewolede Denge (His recordings spanned a four decade of the 1920s to the 1950s).
    6. Oba Oyinbo (The British King) – Tunde King
    7. Sisi To Fijo Sowo (The Female Professional Dancer) – An old juju tune; composer unknown.
    8. Be Ba Nwa Wa (If you are searching for us) – An old juju tune; composer unknown.
     9. Enia Lo Keshin Loro (It’s man who taught the horse wickedness) – Folk song sang by Carretta, Fancy, Sailor and juju groups.
    10. Iyawo Dara O Po (The newlywed (wife) is extremely beautiful) – social and nuptial song famous with juju groups in wedding performance.
    11. Ma Sofun Obi (I will inform my parent) – J.A. Adedeji
    12. Enia Bi Aparo ((Deceitful) people like the aparo bird) – Dele Ojo
    13. Iyawo (wife, newlywed, spouse) – Sunny Ade (excerpt)

    Narration by T. Ajayi Thomas
    Music accompanying various compositions where necessary
    by The West African Supersonics.

     

  • Timothy-Asobele, Samuel (Ola)Jide:
    Historical Trends of Nigerian Indigenous and Contemporary Music .
    Isolo-Lagos: Rothmed International Limited, 2002. ix & 144 p.
    ISBN 978-3013004 (pbk.)

    CONTENTS

    The development of musical awareness
    Classical musicians of Nigeria
    Female classical voices
    Afrobeat musicians
    Nigerian pop music
    Funk and pop musicians
    Female voices
    Juju music
    Fuji music
    Reggae music
    Highlife music
    Traditional northern music
    Traditional southern musicians
    Church music
    Sir (Dr) Afolabi-Alaja Browne
    Nigerian music’s promotion abroad

    Bibliographical references 135-144

  • Veal, Michael E.:
    Fela. The Life and Times of an African Musical Icon.
    Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2000. 313 p.
    ISBN 1-56639-765-0 (Paper) 1-56639-764-2 (Cloth)

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    1 Introduction: “Abami Eda” 1
    2 Abeokuta (1938-1957) 21
    3 “Gentleman” (1958-1970) 39
    4 “African Message” (1970-1974) 77
    5 “The Black President” (1974-1979) 121
    6 “A Serious Cultural Episode” (1979-1992) 167
    7 “Fear Not for Man” (1985-1997) 221
    8 Conclusion: “Look and Laugh” 241

    Appendix
    Koola Lobitos, Nigeria 70, Afrika 70,
    and Egypt 80 Personnel  261

    Notes 263
    Bibliography 283
    Discography 295
    Index 301

  • Waterman, Christopher Allen:
    Jùjú: The Historical Development, Socioeconomic Organization and Communicative Functions of a West African Popular Music.
    Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1986. 447 p.
    ProQuest no. 8610996

    CONTENTS

    Chapter 1
    The Study of African Urban Popular Musics 1
    1.1 Toward a working definition of the term popular music in
           sub-Saharan Africa 1
    1.2 The ethnomusicological study of African urban popular musics 5
    1.3 Africanist urban anthropology and popular music 11
    1.4 Style as practice and communication: An approach to the 
           study of urban popular music in sub-Saharan Africa 23

    Chapter 2
    Social Heterogeneity, Cultural Pluralism, and Musical Style in Colonial Lagos 40
    2.1 The development of Lagos: 15th to late 19th centuries 40
    2.2 Social identity and musical expression in early twentieth 
           century Lagos 49
    2.3 Lagosian economy and demography: 1914-1939 65
    2.4 Lagosian politics and traditional musical 
           expression: 1914-1939 68
    2.5 Class relations in Lagos during the inter-war period 75
    2.6 Islam, Christianity, and music In Lagos: 1918-1939 82
    2.7 Identity and musical style in colonial Lagos: an overview 90

    Chapter 3
    Syncretic Popular Music in Lagos Between the World Wars 94
    3.1 Introduction 94
    3.2 Sákárà: a neo-traditional Islamicized popular music 94
    3.3 Asíkò: a neo-traditional Christian social dance music 107
    3.4 Africanized brass band and ballroom dance music 114
    3.5 Palmwine guitar music in Lagos: 1920s-1930s 121
    3.6 Conclusion 146

    Chapter 4
    Early Jùjú Style (ca. 1932-1948) 149
    4.1 introduction 149
    4.2 The early jùjú ensemble 151
    4.3 Early jùjú performance style 156
    4.4 Early jùjú song texts 161
    4.5 Contexts and relations of performance production 169
    4.6 The social identity and economic status of early jùjú 
           practitioners 183
    4.7 Preconditions for transformation: Early jùjú style 
           during the Second World War 193
    Notes – Chapter 4 201

    Chapter 5
    Modern Jùjú Style (ca. 1948-1960s) 203
    5.1 Introduction 203
    5.2 Post-war changes in jùjú instrumentation and style 204
    5.3 The relations of jùjú performance during the post-war period 218
    5.4 Mass-reproduction, commercial dissemination, and sub-stylistic
           diversification in jùjú music: 1950s-1960s 228
    5.5 Two sub-styles of the 196Os: I.K. Dairo and Dele Ojo 253
          5.5.1 I.K. Dairo: The dominant jùjú “star” of the post-
                   Independence period 253
          5.5.2 Dele Ojo: Interaction between jùjú and highlife
                    during the mid-1960s 258
    5.6 Jùjú after the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970) 266
    Notes – Chapter 5 270

    Chapter 6
    Urban Popular Music in the City of Ibadan 272
    6.1 Yoruba popular music in Ibadan 272
    6.2 The popularity of traditional musics in Ibadan 286
    6.3 The socioeconomic organization of Ibadan jùjú ensembles 294
    Notes – Chapter 6 318

    Chapter 7
    Jùjú Performance in Ibadan 319
    7.1 Jùjú performance contexts 319
          7.1.1 The urban hotel context 319
          7.1.2 The neo-traditional ceremonial context 333
    7.2 Jùjú performance at Yoruba neo-traditional celebrations 347
          7.2.1 Performance roles 349
          7.2.2 Performance practice: text and context 356
    Notes – Chapter 7 381

    Chapter 8
    Jùjú Performance an Aesthetic
    and Ideological Communication
    383
    8.1 Performance evaluations 383
    8.2 Four aspects of jùjú performance as communication 393
    8.3 Conclusion: 
          The Ideological role of a West African popular music 408
    Notes – Chapter 8 421

    Publications Cited 422
    Curriculum Vitae 446

  • Waterman, Christopher A[llen]:
    Jùjú: A Social History and Ethnography of an African popular Music.
    Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1990. 277 p. & audio cassette
    ISBN 0-226-87465-6 / Audio cassette: University of Chicago Press, P1990

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix
    Technical Notes xi

    1 Introduction 1
    2 Sákárà, Asíkò, Highlife, and Palmwine:
       Lagosian Popular Music between the World Wars 27
    3 Early Jùjú Music (1932-1948) 55
    4 The Development of Modem Jùjú (1948-1982) 82
    5 The Social Organization and Contexts of Jùjú
       Performance in Ibadan 148
    6 The Aesthetics and Social Dynamics of Jùjú Performance
       at the Yoruba Àríyá 180
    7 Jùjú Music and Inequality in Modem Yoruba Society 213

    Appendix
    Roster of Ibadan-Based Jùjú and Fúji Bands  229
    Notes  231
    Glossary of Yoruba Terms  243
    Bibliography  247
    Index  263

    AUDIO CASSETTE
    Announcements and talking drum by Adebisi Adeleke.

    SIDE A

     1. “The Late Adeiabu.”
         Haruna lsola and his Apala Group (1958).
         Decca WA.3034
         Apala music. Song text pp. 20-22 Cited p. 85.
     2. “I. K. Dawodu” (excerpt).
         Yusufu Olatunji and his Sákárà Group (early 1960s).
         Badejo BBAF.1016.
         Sákárà band with móló (3-stringed plucked lute).
         Cited p. 37.
     3. Title unknown (excerpt).
         Sákárà group (probably Abibus Oluwa) (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone P0.503 (?).
          Sákárà band with gòjé (1-stringed fiddle). Cited pp. 37-38.
     4. Title unknown.
         Calabar Brass Band (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone PO.5??.
          African colonial brass band style. Cited p. 43.
     5. “Abonsa.”
         Jolly Orchestra (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone PO.531.
         Lagos palmwine group playing variant of Akan highlife
         song “Yaa Amponsah.” Cited p. 49.
     6. “Wallace Johnson” (excerpt).
         Jolly Orchestra (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone PO.570.
         Lagos paimwine group with “Hawaiian” guitar. Cited p. 50.
      7. “Orin Asape Eko.” lrewolede Denge (1937).
         His Master’s Voice J.Z.3/OAB.5.
         Yoruba palmwine music. Song text pp. 50-52.
      8. “Aronke Macaulay.”
         Tunde King and his Group (1936).
         Parlophone PO.508 (B.72142-1).
        Early jùjú music. Song text and musical transcription
         pp. 56-57 (figure 3.1). Transcription of banjo intro-
         duction p. 61 (figure 3.5).
     9. “Ojo Davies” (excerpt).
         Ayinde Bakare and his Group (1937).
         His Master’s Voice J117 (OAB.76).
         Early jùjú music. Transcription of banjo introduction
         p. 62 (figure 3.6).
    10. “Abasi Olubadan” (excerpt).
         Ojo Babajide and his Group (1936).
         Parlophone PO.501.
         Early jùjú music from lbadan. Transcription of banjo
         introduction p. 63 (figure 3.7).
    11. “Association” (excerpt).
         Tunde King and his Group (1936). Parlophone PO.500.
         Early jùjú music with violin and dulcetone. 
         Song text pp. 70-72. Cited pp. 235-36.
    12. “Faji” (excerpt).
         Tunde King and his Group (1936). Parlophone PO.576.
         Islamicized early jùjú. Cited p. 74.
    13.”Jubrilla Atanda” (excerpt).
         Ayinde Bakare and his Group (early 1950s).
         His Master’s Voice JZ.5810.
         Postwar jùjú style with amplified guitar. Cited p. 84.
    14.”Ba Mi Gbowo Mi” (excerpt).
         Adeolu Akinsanya and his Rio Lindo Orchestra (early
         1950s). Decca WA.1930.
         Agidigbo/Mámbò music. Cited p. 85.
    15. “Egan Mi Ko Ye O” (excerpt).
         C. A. Balogun and his Abalabi Dandies (late 1950s).
         Philips P82751.2.
         Ijesa substyle of jùjú. Cited p. 95.
    16. “Saibu” (excerpt).
         Rafiu Bankole and his Group (mid-1950s).
         Decca WA.1519.
         Lagos substyle of jùjú. Cited p. 96.
    17. “Pòtò-Pòtò.” J. 0. Arabs and his Rhythm Blues (1957).
          Philips 82011.2.
          Toy Motion. Song text pp. 98-99.
    18. “Òrò Ré Rèpètè” (excerpt).
          J. O. Oyeshiku and his Rainbow Quintette (1958).
          Philips 82059.1.
          Toy Motion. Song text pp. 99- 100.

    SIDE B

     19. “Salome.”
           I. K. Dairo and the Blue Spots (1962).
           Decca NWA.5080.
           The first modem jùjú superstar. Song text pp. 105-7.
    20. “C Wúrò L’ojó.”
          I. K. Dairo and the Blue Spots (1968).
          Air check, Radio O-Y-0, lbadan (1982).
          Song text pp. 107-10.
    21. “Yaya Mumuni” (excerpt).
          Tunde Nightingale and his Band (mid-1960s).
          His Master’s Voice 45-NH 151.
          Dairo’s competitor, “The Bird that Sings at Night.”
          Cited p. 112.
    22.”Christiana” (excerpt).
         Dele Ojo and his Star Brothers Band (mid-1960s).
         Philips PF 383 321.
         Jùjú-highilfe blend. Cited on p. 115.
    23. “Olowo Laye Mo” (excerpt).
         Ebenezer Obey and his International Brothers Band
         (late 1960s). Rereleased on Decca WAPS.432.
         Song text pp. 120-21.
    24. “E Sa Ma Miliki” (excerpt).
          Ebenezer Obey and his Internationl Brothers Band
          (1970). Rereleased on Decca WAPS.436.
          Song text pp. 121-26.
    25. “Austerity” (excerpt).
          Chief Commander Ebenezer Obey and his
          Inter-Reformers Band (1982). Obey/Decca WAPS 548.
          Song text pp. 128-32.
    26. “Wá Woyàn” (excerpt).
         Sunny Ade and his Green Spots Band (1970).
         African Songs, Ltd. 97B.
         Song text p. 133.
    27. “Synchro System Movement” (excerpt).
          King Sunny Ade and his African Beats (1976).
          African Songs AS26.
          Rhythm section patterns p. 134. Song text pp. 135-39.
    28. “Ja Fun Mi (excerpt).
           King Sunny Ade and his African Beats (1982).
          Island Records ILPS 9712.
          Song text pp. 141-44.
    29. Uncle Toye Ajagun and his Olumo Soundmakers.
          Live performance of jùjú music at a Muslim funeral in
          Ogbomoso (excerpt).
          Song text and transcriptions pp. 197-212.

  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

    CONTENTS

    Replace “English template – click Clone & Edit” (the popup name) with the common name for the Word contents file and the jpg file  (e.g. “mortaigne1997”)

    Insert name of author, title and place of publication in the text box.
    Text colour red. Title in bold. ISBN number in black and 10 px.

    Right side column:
    Button Text: Contents
    Button Title: Click here

    Class to Execute Popup: Insert “Shortcode” popuppress id number

    Picture:
    Click on picture – and then click on “Remove”
    Place curser in front of “CONTENTS”

    Click on “Add Media” and select jpg file. Insert.
    Align: Left
    Image CSS class: map-mobile
    Image Margins: Set “Bottom” value i.e. 500
    Insert text from content file. Edit text and save. 

    Adjust  Bottom value if necessary and Publish pup-up
    Copy “Shortcode” including square brackets e.g. Índice and inset and replace it for “Contents” in the page with book list file.

  • Oreoluwa, Kuponiyi Aderiyike:
    Code-Switching in Contemporary Nigerian Hip Hop Songs.
    M.A. University of Ghana (Legon), 2013 vi & 95 p.

    CONTENTS

    Declaration i
    Dedication ii
    Acknowledgements iii
    Abstract iv
    Table of contents v

    Chapter 1
    Introduction 1
    1.1 Introduction 1
    1.2 Statement of the problem 2
    1.3 Purpose of study 3
    1.4 Hip hop culture 4
    1.5 Hip hop in Nigeria 6
    1.6 Code switching in hip hop 7
    1.7 Limitatations 11

    Chapter 2
    Literature review 12
    2.1 Code-switching 12
    2.2 Borrowing 19

    Chapter 3
    Theoretical framework and methodology 20
    3.1 Theoretical framework 20
    3.2 The markedness model 21
    3.3 Methodology 23
       3.3.1 Selecting the sample 23
       3.3.2 Transcription 24
       3.3.3 Justification of the selected model 24
    3.4 Background information on the selected artist 25
       3.4.1 D’banj 25
       3.4.2 9ice 26
       3.4.3 P Square 26
       3.4.4 Wande Coal 27
       3.4.5 Tiwa Savage 27

    Chapter 4
    Data analysis 28
    4.1 Background information on the data 28
    4.2 SONG 1 30
    4.3 SONG 2 36
    4.4 SONG 3 41
    4.5 SONG 4 44
    4.6 SONG 5 47

    Chapter 5
    Conclusion 50
    5.1 Summary of major findings 50
    5.2 Recommendations 51
    5.3 Conclusion 51

    References 52

    Appendices 54

  • Johnson, John William:
    ‘Heelloy’. Modern Poetry and Songs of the Somalis.
    London: HAAN Publishing, 1998. xxiii & 241 p.
    ISBN 978-1-874-20981-2

    CONTENTS

    Foreword to the first edition by B. W. Andrzejewski ix
    Foreword to the 1996 edition by Abdilahi Qarshi xi
    Preface to the first edition xv
    Preface to the 1996 edition xxiii

    1. Introduction
    The social context 1
    The Nature of Traditional Pastoralist Poetry 12
    The Historical Development of Modern Oral Poetry 17

    2. The Family of Miniature Genres
    The Nature of the Family of Miniature Genres 27
    The Poetry of the Miniature Family 32

    3. The emergence of the Belwo
    The Historical Background 49
    The Belwo is Born 53
    The Poetry of the Belwo 59

    4. The Heello: Period One
    The Metamorphosis: Belwo to Heello A 75
    The Modem Poem: Heello A to Heello B 82

    5. The Heello: Period Two
    The Historical Background 95
    The Poetry of the Second Period 103

    6. The Heello: Period Three
    The Historical Background 117
    The Poetry of the Third Period 146

    7. Characteristics of the Heello: All Periods
    Themes Common to All Periods 175
    Structural Characteristics and
    Development Common to All Periods 190
    The Impact of Media on Modern Poetry 208

    8. Conclusion
    The Inheritance of the Heello 215
    Forces Behind the Success and Development of Modern Poetry 216

  • Emielu, Austin ‘Maro:
    Nigerian Highlife Music.
    Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization, 2013. xii & 252 p.
    ISBN 978-978511-561-1

    CONTENTS

    Dedication ii
    Foreword vii
    Acknowledgements x

    1. Introduction 13

    2. Popular Music in Nigeria 19
    Highlife Music and the BBC Radio Debate 38
    Notes 43

    3. The Social Construction of Highlife Music 44
    The Etymology of Highlife 48
    The Social Construction of Highlife 52
    Notes 56

    4. Historical Development of Nigerian Highlife Music 57
    Roots of Highlife Music 57
    The Pre-Independence Period (1950-1960) 62
    The Post-Independence Period (1960 —1970) 74
    The Post-Civil War (Oil Boom) Period (1970-1980) 86
    The Period of Economic Depression (1980-1990) 93
    The Last Decade of the 20th Century (1990-1999) 99
    Socio-Cultural Factors 103
    Political and Ideological Factors 106
    Economic Factors 108
    Educational and Religious Factors 109
    Notes 113

    5. Forms and Styles of Nigerian Highlife Music 115
    Rhythm 115
    Rhythmic Pattern A 116
    Rhythmic Pattern B 117
    Rhythmic Pattern C 118
    Melody 119
    Harmony 122
    Musical Texture 124
    The Highlife Form 126
    Content Analysis of Highlife Songs 127
    Classification of Nigerian Highlife 141
    Notes 149

    6. Nigerian Highlife Musicians 150

    7. Highlife Music in Contemporary Nigeria 178
    Highlife in South West Nigeria 179
    Highlife in the South South (Edo and Delta States) 184
    Highlife in the South East 186
    Highlife Music in Northern Nigeria 189
    Issues in the Revival and Sustenance of Highlife Music in Contemporary Nigeria 192
    Sustenance of Highlife as a Musical Style 193
    Sustaining Highlife as a Sociological Concept 198
    Sustaining Highlife as an Economic Product 201
    Sustaining the Ideology of Highlife 205
    The Generational Factor in Highlife Music 206
    Notes 210

    8. Social Reconstructionism: A New Theoretical Model 211
    The Stage of Social Construction 212
    The Stage of Social Deconstruction 213
    Stage of Social Reconstruction 215
    Towards a Social Reconstruction of Highlife Music 216

    Glossary 219
    Appendices 225
    Bibliography 232
    Discography 239
    Index 242

  • Waterman, Christopher A[llen]:
    Jùjú: A Social History and Ethnography of an African popular Music.
    Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1990. 277 p. & audio cassette
    ISBN 0-226-87465-6 / Audio cassette: University of Chicago Press, P1990

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix
    Technical Notes xi

    1 Introduction 1
    2 Sákárà, Asíkò, Highlife, and Palmwine:
       Lagosian Popular Music between the World Wars 27
    3 Early Jùjú Music (1932-1948) 55
    4 The Development of Modem Jùjú (1948-1982) 82
    5 The Social Organization and Contexts of Jùjú
       Performance in Ibadan 148
    6 The Aesthetics and Social Dynamics of Jùjú Performance
       at the Yoruba Àríyá 180
    7 Jùjú Music and Inequality in Modem Yoruba Society 213

    Appendix
    Roster of Ibadan-Based Jùjú and Fúji Bands  229
    Notes  231
    Glossary of Yoruba Terms  243
    Bibliography  247
    Index  263

    AUDIO CASSETTE
    Announcements and talking drum by Adebisi Adeleke.

    SIDE A

     1. “The Late Adeiabu.”
         Haruna lsola and his Apala Group (1958).
         Decca WA.3034
         Apala music. Song text pp. 20-22 Cited p. 85.
     2. “I. K. Dawodu” (excerpt).
         Yusufu Olatunji and his Sákárà Group (early 1960s).
         Badejo BBAF.1016.
         Sákárà band with móló (3-stringed plucked lute).
         Cited p. 37.
     3. Title unknown (excerpt).
         Sákárà group (probably Abibus Oluwa) (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone P0.503 (?).
          Sákárà band with gòjé (1-stringed fiddle). Cited pp. 37-38.
     4. Title unknown.
         Calabar Brass Band (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone PO.5??.
          African colonial brass band style. Cited p. 43.
     5. “Abonsa.”
         Jolly Orchestra (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone PO.531.
         Lagos palmwine group playing variant of Akan highlife
         song “Yaa Amponsah.” Cited p. 49.
     6. “Wallace Johnson” (excerpt).
         Jolly Orchestra (ca. 1936).
         Parlophone PO.570.
         Lagos paimwine group with “Hawaiian” guitar. Cited p. 50.
      7. “Orin Asape Eko.” lrewolede Denge (1937).
         His Master’s Voice J.Z.3/OAB.5.
         Yoruba palmwine music. Song text pp. 50-52.
      8. “Aronke Macaulay.”
         Tunde King and his Group (1936).
         Parlophone PO.508 (B.72142-1).
        Early jùjú music. Song text and musical transcription
         pp. 56-57 (figure 3.1). Transcription of banjo intro-
         duction p. 61 (figure 3.5).
     9. “Ojo Davies” (excerpt).
         Ayinde Bakare and his Group (1937).
         His Master’s Voice J117 (OAB.76).
         Early jùjú music. Transcription of banjo introduction
         p. 62 (figure 3.6).
    10. “Abasi Olubadan” (excerpt).
         Ojo Babajide and his Group (1936).
         Parlophone PO.501.
         Early jùjú music from lbadan. Transcription of banjo
         introduction p. 63 (figure 3.7).
    11. “Association” (excerpt).
         Tunde King and his Group (1936). Parlophone PO.500.
         Early jùjú music with violin and dulcetone. 
         Song text pp. 70-72. Cited pp. 235-36.
    12. “Faji” (excerpt).
         Tunde King and his Group (1936). Parlophone PO.576.
         Islamicized early jùjú. Cited p. 74.
    13.”Jubrilla Atanda” (excerpt).
         Ayinde Bakare and his Group (early 1950s).
         His Master’s Voice JZ.5810.
         Postwar jùjú style with amplified guitar. Cited p. 84.
    14.”Ba Mi Gbowo Mi” (excerpt).
         Adeolu Akinsanya and his Rio Lindo Orchestra (early
         1950s). Decca WA.1930.
         Agidigbo/Mámbò music. Cited p. 85.
    15. “Egan Mi Ko Ye O” (excerpt).
         C. A. Balogun and his Abalabi Dandies (late 1950s).
         Philips P82751.2.
         Ijesa substyle of jùjú. Cited p. 95.
    16. “Saibu” (excerpt).
         Rafiu Bankole and his Group (mid-1950s).
         Decca WA.1519.
         Lagos substyle of jùjú. Cited p. 96.
    17. “Pòtò-Pòtò.” J. 0. Arabs and his Rhythm Blues (1957).
          Philips 82011.2.
          Toy Motion. Song text pp. 98-99.
    18. “Òrò Ré Rèpètè” (excerpt).
          J. O. Oyeshiku and his Rainbow Quintette (1958).
          Philips 82059.1.
          Toy Motion. Song text pp. 99- 100.

    SIDE B

     19. “Salome.”
           I. K. Dairo and the Blue Spots (1962).
           Decca NWA.5080.
           The first modem jùjú superstar. Song text pp. 105-7.
    20. “C Wúrò L’ojó.”
          I. K. Dairo and the Blue Spots (1968).
          Air check, Radio O-Y-0, lbadan (1982).
          Song text pp. 107-10.
    21. “Yaya Mumuni” (excerpt).
          Tunde Nightingale and his Band (mid-1960s).
          His Master’s Voice 45-NH 151.
          Dairo’s competitor, “The Bird that Sings at Night.”
          Cited p. 112.
    22.”Christiana” (excerpt).
         Dele Ojo and his Star Brothers Band (mid-1960s).
         Philips PF 383 321.
         Jùjú-highilfe blend. Cited on p. 115.
    23. “Olowo Laye Mo” (excerpt).
         Ebenezer Obey and his International Brothers Band
         (late 1960s). Rereleased on Decca WAPS.432.
         Song text pp. 120-21.
    24. “E Sa Ma Miliki” (excerpt).
          Ebenezer Obey and his Internationl Brothers Band
          (1970). Rereleased on Decca WAPS.436.
          Song text pp. 121-26.
    25. “Austerity” (excerpt).
          Chief Commander Ebenezer Obey and his
          Inter-Reformers Band (1982). Obey/Decca WAPS 548.
          Song text pp. 128-32.
    26. “Wá Woyàn” (excerpt).
         Sunny Ade and his Green Spots Band (1970).
         African Songs, Ltd. 97B.
         Song text p. 133.
    27. “Synchro System Movement” (excerpt).
          King Sunny Ade and his African Beats (1976).
          African Songs AS26.
          Rhythm section patterns p. 134. Song text pp. 135-39.
    28. “Ja Fun Mi (excerpt).
           King Sunny Ade and his African Beats (1982).
          Island Records ILPS 9712.
          Song text pp. 141-44.
    29. Uncle Toye Ajagun and his Olumo Soundmakers.
          Live performance of jùjú music at a Muslim funeral in
          Ogbomoso (excerpt).
          Song text and transcriptions pp. 197-212.

  • Oreoluwa, Ogunbowale Mopelolade:
    “In the Ghetto, Life No Easy For We”:
    The Construction and Negotiation of Identity in Ajegunle Raga.

    M.A. University of Guelph (Ontario), 2012. x & 98 p.

    CONTENTS

    Cover page i
    Abstract ii
    Map iii
    Acknowledgement iv- vi
    Table of Content vii
    List of Tables viii
    List of Figures ix
    List of Nomenclature x

    Chapter One
    Introduction 1
    Chapter Two
    Review of Literature 9
    Chapter Three
    Sources and Fieldwork 21
    Chapter Four
    History of Ajegunle Raga and Popular Music in Nigeria 25
    Chapter Five
    Construction and Negotiation of Identity in Ajegunle Raga 48

    Conclusion and Recommendation 85

    Bibliography 88
    Oral Interviews and Discography 94

  • Waterman, Christopher Allen:
    Jùjú: The Historical Development, Socioeconomic Organization and Communicative Functions of a West African Popular Music.
    Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1986. 447 p.
    ProQuest no. 8610996

    CONTENTS

    Chapter 1
    The Study of African Urban Popular Musics 1
    1.1 Toward a working definition of the term popular music in
           sub-Saharan Africa 1
    1.2 The ethnomusicological study of African urban popular musics 5
    1.3 Africanist urban anthropology and popular music 11
    1.4 Style as practice and communication: An approach to the 
           study of urban popular music in sub-Saharan Africa 23

    Chapter 2
    Social Heterogeneity, Cultural Pluralism, and Musical Style in Colonial Lagos 40
    2.1 The development of Lagos: 15th to late 19th centuries 40
    2.2 Social identity and musical expression in early twentieth 
           century Lagos 49
    2.3 Lagosian economy and demography: 1914-1939 65
    2.4 Lagosian politics and traditional musical 
           expression: 1914-1939 68
    2.5 Class relations in Lagos during the inter-war period 75
    2.6 Islam, Christianity, and music In Lagos: 1918-1939 82
    2.7 Identity and musical style in colonial Lagos: an overview 90

    Chapter 3
    Syncretic Popular Music in Lagos Between the World Wars 94
    3.1 Introduction 94
    3.2 Sákárà: a neo-traditional Islamicized popular music 94
    3.3 Asíkò: a neo-traditional Christian social dance music 107
    3.4 Africanized brass band and ballroom dance music 114
    3.5 Palmwine guitar music in Lagos: 1920s-1930s 121
    3.6 Conclusion 146

    Chapter 4
    Early Jùjú Style (ca. 1932-1948) 149
    4.1 introduction 149
    4.2 The early jùjú ensemble 151
    4.3 Early jùjú performance style 156
    4.4 Early jùjú song texts 161
    4.5 Contexts and relations of performance production 169
    4.6 The social identity and economic status of early jùjú 
           practitioners 183
    4.7 Preconditions for transformation: Early jùjú style 
           during the Second World War 193
    Notes – Chapter 4 201

    Chapter 5
    Modern Jùjú Style (ca. 1948-1960s) 203
    5.1 Introduction 203
    5.2 Post-war changes in jùjú instrumentation and style 204
    5.3 The relations of jùjú performance during the post-war period 218
    5.4 Mass-reproduction, commercial dissemination, and sub-stylistic
           diversification in jùjú music: 1950s-1960s 228
    5.5 Two sub-styles of the 196Os: I.K. Dairo and Dele Ojo 253
          5.5.1 I.K. Dairo: The dominant jùjú “star” of the post-
                   Independence period 253
          5.5.2 Dele Ojo: Interaction between jùjú and highlife
                    during the mid-1960s 258
    5.6 Jùjú after the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970) 266
    Notes – Chapter 5 270

    Chapter 6
    Urban Popular Music in the City of Ibadan 272
    6.1 Yoruba popular music in Ibadan 272
    6.2 The popularity of traditional musics in Ibadan 286
    6.3 The socioeconomic organization of Ibadan jùjú ensembles 294
    Notes – Chapter 6 318

    Chapter 7
    Jùjú Performance in Ibadan 319
    7.1 Jùjú performance contexts 319
          7.1.1 The urban hotel context 319
          7.1.2 The neo-traditional ceremonial context 333
    7.2 Jùjú performance at Yoruba neo-traditional celebrations 347
          7.2.1 Performance roles 349
          7.2.2 Performance practice: text and context 356
    Notes – Chapter 7 381

    Chapter 8
    Jùjú Performance an Aesthetic
    and Ideological Communication
    383
    8.1 Performance evaluations 383
    8.2 Four aspects of jùjú performance as communication 393
    8.3 Conclusion: 
          The Ideological role of a West African popular music 408
    Notes – Chapter 8 421

    Publications Cited 422
    Curriculum Vitae 446

  • Veal, Michael E.:
    Fela. The Life and Times of an African Musical Icon.
    Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2000. 313 p.
    ISBN 1-56639-765-0 (Paper) 1-56639-764-2 (Cloth)

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    1 Introduction: “Abami Eda” 1
    2 Abeokuta (1938-1957) 21
    3 “Gentleman” (1958-1970) 39
    4 “African Message” (1970-1974) 77
    5 “The Black President” (1974-1979) 121
    6 “A Serious Cultural Episode” (1979-1992) 167
    7 “Fear Not for Man” (1985-1997) 221
    8 Conclusion: “Look and Laugh” 241

    Appendix
    Koola Lobitos, Nigeria 70, Afrika 70,
    and Egypt 80 Personnel  261

    Notes 263
    Bibliography 283
    Discography 295
    Index 301

  • Timothy-Asobele, Samuel (Ola)Jide:
    Historical Trends of Nigerian Indigenous and Contemporary Music .
    Isolo-Lagos: Rothmed International Limited, 2002. ix & 144 p.
    ISBN 978-3013004 (pbk.)

    CONTENTS

    The development of musical awareness
    Classical musicians of Nigeria
    Female classical voices
    Afrobeat musicians
    Nigerian pop music
    Funk and pop musicians
    Female voices
    Juju music
    Fuji music
    Reggae music
    Highlife music
    Traditional northern music
    Traditional southern musicians
    Church music
    Sir (Dr) Afolabi-Alaja Browne
    Nigerian music’s promotion abroad

    Bibliographical references 135-144

  • Thomas, T. Ajayi:
    History of Juju Music. A History of a Popular Music from Nigeria.
    Jamaica, N.Y.: Thomas Organization, 1992. 170 p. & video, 3 audio cassettes or CDs
    ISBN 0-9633261-0-4

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement 1
    The Author 3
    Introduction 6

    Chapter 1
    Lagos 14
    1.1 Ogun Ahoyaya 19
    Chapter 2
    The Missionaries 28
    Chapter 3
    “Juju” 32
    Chapter 4
    1900-1910 39
    Chapter 5
    The Eleko Affair 44
    5.1 The Oluwa Landcase 49
    Chapter 6
    1920s-1940s 54
    Chapter 7
    Popular Music Types 70
    Chapter 8
    1930s-1940s 76
    8.1 Ogun Ajakaiye Keji 79
    Chapter 9
    1940s-1950s 87
    9.1 The 1950s – A Tumultuos Dedade 90
    Chapter 10
    The 1960s 96
    10.1 The Challenge Cup 107
    10.2 Post-War Lagos 112
    Chapter 11
    The 1970s – A Dedade of Two Rivals 115
    Chapter 12
    Juju Music Came to International Prominence 118

    Milestones
    Tunde King 121
    Akanbi Wright 125
    Theophilus Iwalokun  128
    Ayinde Bakare 129
    I.K. Dairo 132
    Dele Ojo 134
    Jesus Nwanchuku 138
    Tunde Nightingale 140
    Sunny Ade 142

    Special Mention
    Togo Lawson 147
    Tunde Nightingale 149
    Jofabro 152
    Seigneurial Right, the Hausas and the
    Colonial Government 155
    Musulumi  160

    Chronology 161
    Epilogue  170

     

    Selections of Juju Music Recordings (and other contemporary music) from the 1930s to the 1950s Vol. 1

    The 1930s
     1. Oba Oyinbo – Tunde King (1936)
     2. Dunia – Tunde King (1936)
     3. Orin Asape Eko – Irewolede Denge (1937)
     4. Ojo Davies – Ayinde Bakare (1937 )
     5. In The Public Interest Of The Club
         – Nigerian Jolly Boys Orchestra (1938)
     6. Atari Ajanaku – Nigerian Jolly Boys Orchestra (1938)
    The 1940s
     7. Mo Ti Boko De Calabar – Julius Olofin and His Group
     8. Pepeiye Orugbandudu
         – Piccolo Pete and His Congo Abana Band
     9. Which side money dey
         – Piccolo Pete and His Congo Abana Band
    The 1950s
    10. Golden Faces – Ayinde Bakare
    11. Isau Adewale – Ayinde Bakare
    12. Se Bo ti mo – J.O. Oyesiku
    13. Brother Joe – J.O. Oyesiku
    14. Awolowo – Ojoge Daniel
    15. Orere ma redi – J.O. Araba
    16. Turaka – J.O. Araba
    17. Ogedengbe – Suberu Oni
    18. Olomo lo lehin – Suberu Oni
    19. Why worry lawa wa – Suberu Oni
    20. Iyawo Oniwakiwa – I.K. Dairo
    21. Lawrence Omole – I.K. Dairo
    22. Awon Agbagba Ondo – Adetunji Ondo Orchestra
    23. Ma majo Konba – Adetunji Ondo Orchestra
    24. Obanla – F.A. Jimmy West
    25. Awa sope – F.A. Jimmy West

    Selections of Juju Music Recordings
    from the 1960s to the 1990s Vol. 2

    The 1960s
     1. Eni Afe Lamo – Dele Ojo
     2. I Don’t Know Why She Loves Me – Dele Ojo
     3. Enia bi aparo – Dele Ojo
     4. Sekere Alafin – Tunde Nightingale
     5. A Gbogungboro – Tunde Nightingale
     6. Chief Aruwajoye – Irewolede Denge
     7. Aya Rere Pada Wale – Igbekele Gede
    The 1970s
     9.  Ibikunle Alakija – Ayinde Bakare
    10. J.K. Randle – Ayinde Bakare
    11. Iwalewa – Ayinde Bakare
    12. Sisi Jaiyejaiye – Fatayi Rolling Dollar
    13. Saworo – Fatayi Rolling Dollar
    The 1980s
    14. Freedom for all Black People – Dele Ojo
    The 1990s
    15. Awa Ewe Iwoyi – Ebenezer Obey
    16. Iyawo – Sunny Ade

    Chronology of the Evolution of Juju Music, its Competitors and Players from the 1930s to the 1990s Vol. 3

    1. Awa O Sise (We are on strike)
    2. Elemu (The palm-wine tapper)
    1. & 2. Compositions of Togo Lawson  (He died without making recording of any of his many compositions).
    3. Owo Nbo (Money is coming)
    4. Pada Lehin Mi (Get back behind me)
    5. Otutu Ki Meja (Fish never feels cold)
    3.-5. Compositions of Irewolede Denge (His recordings spanned a four decade of the 1920s to the 1950s).
    6. Oba Oyinbo (The British King) – Tunde King
    7. Sisi To Fijo Sowo (The Female Professional Dancer) – An old juju tune; composer unknown.
    8. Be Ba Nwa Wa (If you are searching for us) – An old juju tune; composer unknown.
     9. Enia Lo Keshin Loro (It’s man who taught the horse wickedness) – Folk song sang by Carretta, Fancy, Sailor and juju groups.
    10. Iyawo Dara O Po (The newlywed (wife) is extremely beautiful) – social and nuptial song famous with juju groups in wedding performance.
    11. Ma Sofun Obi (I will inform my parent) – J.A. Adedeji
    12. Enia Bi Aparo ((Deceitful) people like the aparo bird) – Dele Ojo
    13. Iyawo (wife, newlywed, spouse) – Sunny Ade (excerpt)

    Narration by T. Ajayi Thomas
    Music accompanying various compositions where necessary
    by The West African Supersonics.

     

  • Servant, Jean-Christophe:
    “Which way Nigeria?” Music under Threat:
    A Question of Money, Morality, Self-Censorship and Sharia.

    Copenhagen: Freemuse,  2003. 88p.
    ISSN 1601-2127

    CONTENTS

    Preface 5
    Abstract 7
    About the Author 8
    Map 9
    Introduction 11

    1 The Years of Democrazy: 1999-2002 15

    2 General Background on Nigeria
    2.1 Religion 17
    2.2 Politics 19
    2.3 Justice 20
    2.4 Freedom of expression 22
    2.5 Women’s rights 24

    3 Nigerian Music
    3.1 Introduction 26
    3.2 From palm wine to juju: 1920-1960 27
    3.3 From highlife to civil war: 1960-1971 29
    3.4 The Golden Age: 1972-1976 31
    3.5 The Eighties: The end of the major record labels 33
    3.6 The Nineties: Fuji style 36
    3.7 2002: From galala to Afro hip-hop 37

    4 No Money, no Voice: When Capitalism 
        Intrudes on Freedom of Expression in Lagos

    4.1 Introduction: The limits of democracy 41
    4.2 Economic laissez-faire and payola 42
    4.3 Piracy: The silent war 46
    4.4 Fear and violence: Music under siege 47
    4.5 Praise singing: Economic death or spiritual slavery? 50
    4.6 Religion versus music: Self-censorship, pressure groups 
          and bans in Lagos 54

    5 Case Study: Femi Kuti – the Banning of ‘Bang, Bang, Bang’
    5.1 Biography of Femi Kuti 56
    5.1.1 NBC vs. Femi Kuti 59

    6 Gangsta Rap and Makossa
    6.1 High moral grounds versus the ‘Music of the Devil’ 65

    7 Shariaphrenia
    7.1 Harassment, censorship and violence in northern Nigeria 69
    7.2 Music in the North 71

    8 Case Study: Katsina State
    Hisbas versus Hausa musicians;
    Alhaji Sirajo Mai Asharalle 73

    9 Case Study: Kano State
    Sani Dan Indo, Haladji Waba Yarim Asharalle 76

    10 Kano State Censorship Board
    A protection for Hausa musicians? 79

    11 Sabon Gari: The fear of the unknown 82

    12 Conclusion and Recommendations 84

    13 Bibliography 88

  • Schoonmaker, Trevor:
    Fela. From West Africa to West Broadway.
    New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 212 p.
    ISBN 1-4039-6210-3 (pbk.) 1-4039-6209-x (cloth)
    Reprint
    Houghton, South Africa: Jacana Media, 2004. 212 p.
    ISBN 1-919931-76-7

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    Trevor Schoonmaker
    Introduction 1

    Knox Robinson
    The Father, the Sons, and the Holy Ghost 10
    Mabinuori Kayode Idowu, aka I. D.
    African Who Sang and Saw Tomorrow  16
    Joseph Patel
    Power Music, Electric Revival: Fela Kuti and the Influence of His Afrobeat on Hip-Hop and Dance Music 25
    Vivien Goldman
    Resurrection Shuffle 36
    Femi Anikulapo-Kuti and Jérôme Sandlarz
    Interview 41
    Ghariokwu Lemi
    Producing Fela’s Album Jackets 51
    John Collins
    Fela and the Black President Film: A Diary 55
    Dele Jegede
    Dis Fela Sef! – Fela in Lagos 78
    Vivien Goldman
    Thinking Africa: Afrobeat Aesthetic and the Dancing Queens 103
    LaRay Denzer
    Fela, Women, Wives 111
    Nkiru Nzegwu
    School Days in Lagos -Fela, Lady, and “Acada” Girls 135
    Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and Barney Hoskyns
    Interview 149
    Sola Olorunyomi
    On Whose Side are the Orisa (gods)? 157
    Yomi Durotoye
    Roforofo Fight: Fela’s Resistance of Domination 172

    Fela Timeline 197
    Map of Nigeria 203
    Index 205

  • Opesanwo, Gbenga & Segun Ogunkoya:
    I. K. Dairo  M.B.E.: The Man, the Myth and the Blue Spots.
    Abeokuta: Kunle Alayande Printing and Publishing Co., 1992. xii & 140 p.
    ISBN 978-2810-08-8

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgment iii
    Foreword vi
    Introduction vii

    The Early Years 1
    Life at School 4
    10 – 20 Years, Life Out Of School/Afonta 6
    Dairo As Labourer 7
    Talking of Juju Music 9
    Tracing Dairo’s Musical Career 11
    Morning Star Orchestra 16
    Dairo and the first Blue Spot Band 16
    Second Blue Spot Band 20
    Touring 23
    America and North America Musical Tour – 27 Days 33
    North American Musical Tour 38
    When the Chips Are Down 43
    Musical Boomtime 47
    Award Of M.B.E. – The Biggest Story 49
    The Man Dairo and His Music 75
    The Ultimate Musician 91
    Dairo as an Apostle (C&S Holy Order) 99
    Dairo as a Music Star 106
    How Newspapers, Radio and TV See Him 106
    Overview of Songs of I. K. Dairo (Old and New) 114
    What is the Future of Juju Music in Nigeria 133

    Books on Dairo 134

  • Onwuegbuna, Ikenna Emmanuel:
    Trends in African Popular Music.
    Socio-Cultural Interactions and the Reggae Genre in Nigeria.
    Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris, 2015. 132 p.
    ISBN 978-1-5035-8791-5 / 978-1-5035-8790-8 (eBook)

    CONTENTS

    Title Page i
    Dedication vii
    Foreword Ix
    Preface xi
    Acknowledgments xiii
    Introduction xv

    1. Prelude 1
    Our Aspiration 1
    Problematizing the Issues 2
    Justifying the Rationale 3
    The Implication 4

    2. Socio-Cultural Interactions 6
    Socio-musical Events 7
    Functional Popular Music 13
    Nigerian Reggae Music 15

    3. Defining Popular Music 17
    Definitions According to Specifics 18
    Stylistic Definition 18
    Sociological Definition 19
    Process-based Definition 20
    Theory-based Definition 22
    African Popular Music 24
    Ethnic Pop 26
    Interethnic Pop 28
    International Pop 29

    4. The Reggae Genre 31
    History and Etymology of Reggae 31
    Growth and Spread of the Genre 37
    Development of Various Sub-Genres 41
    Modern Trends in Reggae Music 44
    Nature and Features of Reggae 46

    5. The Nigerian Reggae Scene 50
    The Period between 1960 and 1980 51
    The Period between 1980 and 2000 54
    Nigerian Reggae in the Present Millennium 56
    A Brief on Sonny Okosuns – the Pioneer Exponent 59

    6. Reflections 64
    Approaches to Pop Music Analysis 66
    Musical Approach 66
    Socio-Cultural Approach 104
    Ideological Approach 108
    Historical Approach 112
    Problems of Popular Music Studies 113
    Suggested Solutions to the Problems 117
    Recommendations and Prospects 119
    Summary and Conclusion 121

    Fig. 1: A basic reggae rhythm – emphasizing 
               the ‘one drop’ pattern 46
    Fig. 2: A representative score of 
               Sonny Okosuns’ Help 71
    Fig. 3: A representative score of Majek Fashek’s 
               Send Down The Rain 86
    Fig. 4: A representative score of Evi-Edna Ogholi’s 
               One Kilometre 102

    Discography 123
    Filmography 125
    References 127

  • Omojola, Bode:
    Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century. Identity, Agency, and Performance Practice.
    Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2012. 285 p. & CD
    ISBN 978-1-58046-493-2

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    Introduction 1

    1 Yorùbá Drumming: 
       Performance Practice and the Politics of Identity 16
    2 Talking and Stammering:
        Toward an Analysis of Yorùbá Drumming 46
    3 Songs of the King’s Wives:
        Gendered and Social Identities in Yorùbá Vocal Performance 70
    4 The Aírégbé Song Tradition of Yorùbá Female Chiefs 91
    5 Yorùbá Music in the Christian Liturgy:
        Notation, Performance, and Identity 113
    6 Yorùbá Music in Christian Worship:
        The Aládŭrà Church 136
    7 Yorùbá Popular Music:
        Hybridity, Identity, and Power 162
    8 Yorùbá Islamic Popular Music 204

    Conclusion 221

    Appendixes
    A Fieldwork 231
    B Accompanying Compact Disc Track List 234

    Notes 235
    Selected Discography and Videography 255
    Bibliography 259
    Index 273

  • Omojola, Bode:
    Popular Music in Western Nigeria: Theme, Style and Patronage System.
    Ibadan: Institut Français de Recherché en Afrique (IFRA Ibadan), 2006. 166p.
    ISBN 978-8025-11-5
    Reprint
    Ibadan: Institut Français de Recherché en Afrique (IFRA Nigeria),  2014. 166 p.
    ISBN 979-10-92312-23-2

    CONTENTS

    Foreword vii
    Preface ix

    1. Introduction 1
    Defining Popular Music: Western Models and African Perspectives 1
    Definition and Scope 6
    Focus on Western Nigeria 8

    2. Cultural and Social Identity in Nigerian Traditional Music 11
    Indigenous Concepts 13
    Contexts of Music Making 17
    The Status of Musicians 25
    Sound and Instrumental Resources 29
    Ensemble Organisation 33
    Quality of the Singing Voice 37
    Music and Dance 38

    3. Historical and Cultural Background of Popular Music in Western Nigeria 43
    Traditional Antecedents 43
    Impact of European Music 45
    Early Forms and Pioneering Performers 46
    Islam and Popular Music in Western Nigeria 49

    4. Musical Style and Social Themes 53
    The Highlife 53
    Juju Music 54
    The Trio of Juju: Ebenezer Obey, Sunny Ade and Shina Peters 54
    Style in Juju Music 70
    Juju and the Nigerian Society  71
    From Ramadan call to Popular Music: Waka, Sakara, Apala and Fuji 72
    The Social Dynamics of Fuji Music 76
    Post-Colonial Dynamics in Fela Anikulapo-Kuti’s Afro-Beat 78
    Lagbaja: Moderate Politics, Great Music 86

    5. Nightclubs and Popular Music 93
    The London Connection 93
    Music in Nigerian Night-Clubs: Socio-Aesthetic Currents 97
    Declining Patronage of Night Club Music in Western Nigeria 102

    6. Analysis and Conclusion: between Live Music and ‘Frozen’ Music 119
    The ‘Invasion’ of Juju and Fuji 120
    Aesthetics and lyrics 122
    Home Entertainment 124
    From Adult Music to Youthful Hip-Hop 126
    Religious Factors 128
    Popular Music and Social Dynamics in Western Nigeria 130

    Bibliography 133
    Discography 139
    Appendix I 144
    Index 158

     

  • Olorunyomi, Sola:
    Afrobeat! Fela and the Imagined Continent.
    Trenton, N.J.:  Africa World Press, 2003. 288 p.
    ISBN 1-59221-072-4

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix
    Glossary xiii
    Introduction xix

    1. Tradition and Afrobeat 1
    2. Bard of the Public Sphere 33
    3. The Empire Sounds Back 81
    4. Idán, or a Carnivalesque 127
    5. Alterity, Afrobeat and the Law 173
    6. The Afrobeat Continuum 211

    Bibliography 221

    Appendices 237
    Discography 237
    Excerpts from the Constitution of the
    Movement of the People (MOP) 254
    Biodata/Inventory of Sonic Censorship 256

    Photographs 265
    Index 275

  • Olatunji, Babatunde with Robert Atkinson:
    The Beat of My Drum. An Autobiography.
    Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2005. 247 p.
    ISBN 1-59213-354-1 (pbk) 1-59213-353-3 (cloth)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Joan Baez vii

    Introduction by Eric Charry 1
    Bibliography 20
    Discography/ Videography/ Webography 22

    Part One – Learning the Rhythm
    1 The Spirit of Drumming 29
    2 Yorubaland 43
    3 From Lagos to Atlanta 75

    Part Two – Adapting to a New Rhythm
    4 Jim Crow and College Life 91
    5 Harlem on My Mind 123
    6 Drums of Passion 136

    Part Three – Passing the Rhythm On
    7 Social Change and Civil Rights 163
    8 World Music Comes of Age 193
    9 Voices of Africa 213

    Afterword by Robert Atkinson 237
    Index 243

    Photograph gallery follows page 122

  • Olaniyan, Tejumola:
    Arrest the Music! Fela and His Rebel Art and Music.
    Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2004. 239 p.
    ISBN 0-253-34461-1 (cloth) 0-253-21718-0 (pbk)

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments   ix

     1. Introduction: “Living in the Interregnum”:
         Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and the Postcolonial Incredible 1
     2. The “Apolitical” Avant-Pop Hustler   7
     3. The Afrobeat Moralist 24
     4. Dissident Tunes: The Political Afrobeat 50
     5. Fela, Lagos, and the Postcolonial State 87
     6. On the Shop Floor: The Social Production of Afrobeat 108
     7. Pedagogue, Pedagogy, and the Pedagogic Form 145
     8. The Cosmopolitan Nativist:
         Fela and the Antinomies of Postcolonial Modernity 157
     9. The Political, The Libidinal 166
    10.  Conclusion: Afrobeat after Fela 175

    Notes191
    Bibliography 219
    Discography 229
    General Index 233
    Song Index 241

  • Oladipo-Ola, Jawi:
    Fela Anikulapo-Kuti. The Primary Man of an African Personality. The Narrative and Screenplay.
    Osogbo: Frontpage Media, 2011. 130 p.
    ISBN 978-978-49986-3-5

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgment iv
    Introduction v – viii

    The Script (Narrative) 1 -14
    Screenplay 15 -129

    All incidents and scenes in the Screenplay took place in its originality.
    But the names could be coincidental.

  • Okagbare, Benson Corporo:
    Songs of I. K. Dairo, MBE and his Blue Spots (with Plates) with Commentaries in English.
    Lagos: The Author. Printed by Nigeria National Press, Apapa, 1969. ix & 134 p.
    ISBN N/A

    CONTENTS

    Preface  ix
    Yoruba: Language and Culture 1

    A Short Biography of I. K. Dairo 2

    Alphabetical List of Songs and Commentaries
     
     1. Á Yẹ wá Kalẹ́ 9
     2. Á Yẹ wá Á Rọ̀ Wá Lọ́rùn 10
     3. Adé Orí Mi 12
     4. Adeyinka Adebayọ (Col.) 13
     5. Àdúrà Blue Spot 15
     6. Ayé Fòtítọ́ Pamọ́ 16
     7. Àjòjì Ni Mo Jẹ́ Nílẹ̀ Yìí 17
     8. Àlàáfíà 18
     9. Allau Mọ Sọli 19
    10. Angelina O Ti Lọ Wà Jù 20
    11. Awólọ́wọ̀ (Chief) 22
    12. Baba Da Mi Lare 24
    13. Baba Mi Nígbà Tí Mo Bá Ṣáko Lọ 26
    14. Baba Olú Ọ̀run 28
    15. Baba Wa Lókè A Dúpẹ́ 29
    16. Bakare, S.B. (Chief) 30
    17. Baby Má Gbé Ìyẹn Wá 31
    18. Bèbè Yìí Ga 33
    19. Bẹ̀nàtadé 34
    20. Benjamin Adekunle (Col.) 35
    21. Bóńfò 37
    22. Do Sisi 38
    23. E Mami 39
    24. Èjìrẹ́ Ará Ìsokùn 41
    25. Èmi Ahun 42
    26. Èmi Ìbá Lẹ́gbẹ̀rún Ahọ́n 44
    27. Ẹ Má Mọ́bùn Ṣaya 45
    28. Ẹ̀kún Rẹ́rẹ́ 47
    29. Ẹyẹ Mélòó Tòlòǹgò Wáyé 48
    30. Ẹlẹ́lẹ Turẹ 49
    31.  Ẹlẹlẹ Mù Túrẹ 51
    32. Ẹri Moha Ye Mi 52
    33. Fọ̀nà Hàn Mí 54
    34. Gbogbo Nàìjíríà Gbójú Sókè 56
    35. Gown, Yakubu, Major-General 58
    36. I Remember My darling 59
    37. Igbá Ilé, Ma Mú Ṣoge 60
    38. Ìgéréye Ìlò 61
    39. Ijó Ọlọ́mọ 62
    40. Ikú Yẹ̀ Lórí Mi 63
    41. Ire Ni O 64
    42. Iṣẹ́ Ajé 65
    43. Iṣẹ́ Ọwọ́ Mi Mò Ń Jẹ 71
    44. Ìyàwó Oníwàkìwà 72
    45. Jẹ́ Ká Sọ́ra 73
    46. Káyé Má Ṣelénìní Mi 75
    47. Kọlawọle Balogun (Chief) 76
    48. Kúlúsọ 78
    49. Làbútú Yẹkẹ 79
    50. Ladejọla Oginni 80
    51. Ladejọla Oginni (Late) 82
    52. Lawrence Ọmọle 84
    53. Màá Bá Ẹ Ṣorò Ilé 85
    54. Ma Oyro Ghana Fo 86
    55. Méè Fáya Ọba 87
    56. Mo Fara Mi Fún Ọ 88
    57. Mo Gbójú Lé Bàbá Lókè 89
    58. Ǹǹlẹ́ Mọ Ọwá 90
    59. Olúwa Á Da 91
    60. Olúwa Rẹ Àwọn Elẹ́gàn Lẹ́kún 93
    61. Ojú mọ́ Mi Sí Pèré Òde 94
    62. Omí Ọpọ́n 96
    63. Onílé Gogoro 97
    64. Òréke Lẹ́wà 99
    65. Orí mi Má Fi mí Fáráyé Mú 100
    66. Orilonise 102
    67. Owo Ati Omo Niyi Aiye 103
    68. Owo Wù Mí 104
    69. Owuro Lawa  105
    70. Oyín Mọmọ Àdò 107
    71. Ọkàn Mi Yin Ọba Ọ̀run 108
    72. Ọkàn Mi Yọ̀ Nínú Olúwa 110
    73. Ọmọ Alárọ́ 111
    74. Ọmọ Ọlọ́jà 113
    75. Ọmọge 114
    76. Ọwá Obòkun II 115
    77. Porogún ilá 117
    78. Rebecca 118
    79. Rọra Fẹ̀sọ̀ Jayé 119
    80. Rosana 121
    81. Salomẹ 123
    82. Ṣe rere Fún Mi 124
    83. Shonibarẹ, late Chief 125
    84. Taxi Driver 126
    85. Tètè gbéra 127
    86. Tíná Bá Wọlé, Òkùnkùn á Paradà 129
    87. Wobuta Koyọ I 131
    88. Wobuta Koyọ II 132

  • Okafor, Richard C.; Afam Nwokike; Cosmas Eziechi  & Jonathan Egudu (eds.):
    The Life and Works of Celestine Ukwu.
    Enugu: New Generation Book, 1999. 158 p.
    ISBN 978-2900-39-7

    CONTENTS

    Dedication iii
    Foreword iv
    Preface vi
    Notes on the Authors viii

    Chapter I
    Family and Musical Background 1

    Chapter II
    The Lyrics of Celestine’s Songs 6
    i.     Ejina Uwa anya Isi (Do Not Boast of What You Have)
    ii.    O-bialu-be-onye (A Guest)
    iii.   Okwukwe na Nchekwube (Faith and Hope)
    iv.    Mma anyi egbuna anyi (May our kindness not lead us to doom)
    v.     Mmefie adiro, Mgbayalu ama adi (No offence, No forgiveness)
    vi.     Ilo abu Chi (The Enemy/Foe is not God)
    vii.    Eji m Nk’Onye? (Whose Share Have I taken?)
    viii.   Ome Ife Jide Ofo Part I 
             (Whoever acts should act righteously, Part I)
    ix.      I ma Echi? (Do you know Tomorrow?)
    x.       Asili (Gossip)
    xi.      Uso Ndu (Sweetness of Life)
    xii.     Onwunwa (Temptation)
    xiii.    Ife si na Chi (Destiny)
    xiv.    Ije Enu (Life’s Journey)
    xv.     Ilo Oyi (Betrayal among Friends)
    xvi.    Uwa bu Olili (Life is a Social Call/Sojourn)
    xvii.   Onye akwana Uwa (Let none Bemoan the World)
    xviii.  Onwu bu Ugwo (Death is a Debt)
    xix.    Akwa a na-ebelu ego (The Worries Over Money)
    xx.     Jisie Ike (Keep on Trying)
    xxi.    Ome Ife Jide Ofo, Part II 
              (Whoever Acts should be Upright Part II)
    xxii.    Ndu bulu Ililo (If Life were Weed)
    xxiii.   Uche Chukwu Ka (God’s will is Supreme)
    xxiv.   Ego Eju Aka (Money never Suffices)
    xxv.    Onwu ama Eze (Death knows no king)
    xxvi.    Ife Uwa adi agwu agwu (Earthly things are inexhaustible)
    xxvii.   Ndu ka Aku (Life is greater than Wealth)
    xxviii.  Chi ji Oke (God Is The Distributor)
    xxix.    Ngozi Chukwu Ka (God’s Blessing is Supreme)
    xxx.     Okwu Eji N’elo (Matters of Mutual Agreement)
    xxxi.    Uwem Eriri Mbot Emi (Efik) – Life in this World
    xxxii.   Ebe Mi o (Efik) – My husband
    xxxiii.  Tomorrow is so Uncertain
    xxxiv.  Man Proposes And God Disposes
    xxxv.   Artificial Beauty
    xxxvi.  No condition is Permanent
    xxxvii.  Grade by Grade
    xxxviii. Money Palaver
    xxxix.   Hail, Biafra!

    Chapter III
    Celestine Ukwu: The Philosopher 93

    Chapter IV
    Celestine as an Educator 106

    Chapter V
    Characteristics of Celestine Ukwu’s Music 111
    i.     His compositional techniques
    ii.    Instrumentation
    iii.   Structure
    iv.   Language Delivery Style
    v.    Themes
    vi.   Performance
    vii.  Costumes
    viii. Relationship with his musicians
            a. Chi na Elo
            b. Uche Chukwu
    ix.    Dance Styles
    x.     Igede
    xi.    Songs  – See Appendix

    Chapter VI
    In Memoriam 126
    i. Tribute to Celestine Ukwu by the Celestine
        Ukwu Memorial Dance Band – CUMB
    ii. Liner Notes on Album by Benson Idonije
    iii. Tribute in Daily Star – “Celestine Ukwu dies in Crash”
    iv. Tribute by his Brother, Damian Ukwu
    v. “Adieu Celestine Ukwu” by Obi Anene in Sunday Observer
    vi. “Terrible road crash – Celestine Ukwu killed”
          in the Nigerian Mirror
    vii. “Musician Celescine Ukwu killed in Crash”
           by Dennis Okiali in the Nigerian Observer

    Appendix – Some of his Transcribed Songs 135
    a. O-bialu-be-onye
    b. Onye Akwana Uwa
    c. Ije Enu
    d. Ho abu Chi
    e. Ife uwa adi agwu agwu
    f. Uwa by Olili
    g. Hail, Biafra!
    h. Grade by Grade

    Bibliography 146

    Discography 153

  • Ngoladi, Uzor:
    Seun Kuti : Inside Kalakuta & Within Afrobeat.
    Ibeju Lekki: Strategia Blast International Ltd., Nigeria 2012. xiii & 202p.
    ISBN 978-9789-29337-7

    CONTENTS

    Dedication
    Introduction
    Foreword
    Preface

    Chapter One Life begins at Kalakuta Republic
    Chapter Two Early skill development at Afrika Shrine
    Chapter Three The Kuti Dynasty
    Chapter Four Afrobeat: The Macabre Dance
    Chapter Five Egypt 80 and maturity
    Chapter Six Honing musical skill in Liverpool
    Chapter Seven From stage to studio: The albums
    Chapter Eight Bad government: Activism through music
    Chapter Nine Love for ‘Good Leaf’
    Chapter Ten World musical tours
    Chapter Eleven New Afrika Shrine
    Chapter Twelve Fela! On Broadway
    Chapter Thirteen Lekan Animasaun (Baba Ani)
    Chapter Fourteen Motunrayo Kuti
    Chapter Fifteen Oloye (Band Manager)
    Chapter Sixteen Keith Richards
    Chapter Seventeen Talking to the media
    Chapter Eighteen Women in Afrobeat
    Chapter Nineteen The future of Afrobeat
    Chapter Twenty Matters Arising

    References

  • Moore, Carlos:
    Fela, Fela. This Bitch of a Life.
    London: Allison & Busby, 1982. 287 p.
    ISBN 0-85031-464-X

    CONTENTS

     Afa Ojo, She Who Commands Rain 22

     1 Abiku, The Twice-Born 29
     2 Three Thousand Strokes 35
     3 Funmilayo, “Give Me Happiness” 41
     4 Hello, Life! Goodbye, Daudu 48
     5 J.K. Braimah – My Man Fela 55
     6 A Long Way From Home 61
     7 Remi, The One With the Beautiful Face 67
     8 From Highlife Jazz to Afro-Beat 73
     9 Lost and Found in the Jungle of Skyscrapers 81
    10 Sandra 91
    11 The Birth of Kalakuta Republic 109
    12 J.K. Braimah – The Reunion 115
    13 Alagbon Close 119
    14 From Adewusi to Obasanjo 129
    15 The Sack of Kalakuta 135
    16 Shuffering and Shmiling 142
    17 Why I Was Deported from Ghana 147
    18 My Second Marriage 156
    19 My Queens 163
    20 What Woman is to Me 234
    21 My Mother’s Death 239
    22 Men, Gods and Spirits 246
    23 This Motherfucking Life 255

    Afa Ojo, She Who Commands Rain 270

    Discography 285

  • Ita, Chief Bassey:
    Jazz in Nigeria. An Outline Cultural History.
    Calabar & Lagos: Radical House Publication, 1984. 99 p.
    ISBN N/A

    CONTENTS

    Introduction  5

    Part 1
    Chapter 1 The African Roots of Jazz 7
    Chapter 2 The Jazz Bug Eats Deep 13
    Chapter 3 Return Of Bobby Benson 18
    Chapter 4 No Bebop Posture Here! 25
    Chapter 5 Visitor and Festivals 37
    Chapter 6 1960’s and Great Experiments 45

    Gallery 49-56

    Part 2
    Chapter 7 Jazz around the World 64

    Part 3
    Chapter 8 The Jazz-Derived Music of the Young 69

    Postscript  95

  • Ige, Clement & Femi Abulude:
    Hooked to Music. King Sunny Ade’s Own Story.
    Ibadan: Distinct Publications, 1996. 101 p.
    ISBN 978-32376-2-4

    CONTENTS

     1. Stranded at Abeokuta 4
     2. Hooked to music 11
     3. The Master Guitarist as the Pacesetter 23
     4. Major influences in my music 30
     5. The music business and the fans 35
     6. The Press and my Crown 45
     7. The King of Kings 51
     8. Christ as my Cornerstone 72
     9. KSA Foundation 75
    10. Words on Marble 79
    11. The Trail Blazer 86

    The 68th Guitarist in the world 100

  • Idowu, Mabinuori Kayode:
    Fela – Phenomenon & Legacy.
    Paris: Black Art Production, 2012. 524 p.
    ISBN 978-2-9543674-0-8

    CONTENTS

     1. Preface 6
     2. No Agreement 21
     3. Colo-Mentality 40
     4. Eko Ile (Lagos Sweet Home) 54
     5. Viva Nigeria! Viva Africa! 78
     6. Chief Priest Say 91
     7. Alagbonclose 100
     8. Expensive Shit 113
     9. Kalakuta Show 120
    10. Young African Pioneers 130
    11. Second World Black Festival of Arts and Culture (Festac) 149
    12. Unknown Soldier 183
    13. Coffin for Head of State 227
    14. The Ikeja Africa Shrine 249
    15. Teacher Don’t Teach Me Nonsense 272
    16. Look and Laugh 302
    17. Beasts of No Nation 330
    18. Underground System 371
    19. The Fela Phenomenon 382
    20. Femi Anikulapo-Kuti  414
    21. Seun Anikulapo-Kuti Egpypt 80 427
    22. Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra 431
    23. Coup de Gueule (Fit of Rage) 435
    24. Felabration: One of the Solutions 445
    25. Discography 452

  • Idowu, Mabinuori Kayode:
    Fela le combattant.
    Bordeaux: Le Castor Astral, 2002. 141 p.
    ISBN 2-85920-488-1

    TABLE DES MATIÈRES

    Femi Kuti, l’heritier naturel – Interview 5

    Fela le combattant

    Preface 21

    Chapitre 1 L’histoire légendaire de la famille Kuti 25
    Chapitre 2 Koola Lobitos 33
    Chapitre 3 La république de Kalakuta 45
    Chapitre 4 Berlin 1978 : rencontre avec le public occidental 61
    Chapitre 5 Eko-Lagos 69
    Chapitre 6 J’ai un doctorat de bon sens 79
    Chapitre 7 Pas de remerciements pour le gouvernement  95
    Chapitre 8 L’héritage de Fela 109

    Discographie 121
    Lexique 133

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes. 2nd edition
    Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2015.  xii & 326 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8195-7539-5 (paper) 978-0-8195-7540-1 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Banning Eyre ix
    Introduction 1

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The Birth of Afrobeat 27
    2 Joe Mensah Remembers 41
    3 Fela in Ghana 49
    4 Stan Plange Remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is Born 67
    6 “JB” Talks about Fela 73
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 81
    8 The Black President 114
    9 Amsterdam and After 125

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 139
    11 Frank Talk about Fela 152
    12 Obiba Plays It Again 165
    13 Smart Binete Sorts It Out 174
    14 Anku Checks Out the Beat 178
    15 Nana Danso Orchestrates 183
    16 Some Early Afro-Fusion Pioneers 197
    17 Interview with Fela 204
    18 Afterthoughts and Updates 209
    19. Felabrations at Home and Abroad 238

    Chronology 259
    Notes 269
    Selected Bibliography 281
    Discography 285
    Appendix A: “Shuffering and Shmiling” Score 303
    Index 309

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes.
    Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2009. 159 p.
    ISBN 978-9068-327-48-9

    CONTENTS

    Foreword 5
    About the author 10
    Introduction 11

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The birth of Afrobeat 15
    2 Joe Mensah remembers 23
    3 Fela in Ghana 27
    4 Stan Plange remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is born 37
    6 ‘JB’ talks about Fela 43
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 49
    8 The Black President 69
    9 Amsterdam and after 75

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 85
    11 Frank talk about Fela 93
    12 Obiba plays it again 101
    13 Smart Binete sorts it out 107
    14 Anku checks out the beat 109
    15 Nana Danso orchestrates 115
    16 Fela: the full works 123
    17 Interview with Fela 131
    18 Afterthoughts, updates and ‘Felabrations’ 139

  • Collins, E[dmund] J[ohn]:
    My Life, by Sir Victor Uwaifo. The Black Knight of Music Fame.
    Accra: Black Bell Publication, 1976. 46 p.
    ISBN N/A

    CONTENTS

    Note about the Editor 1

    1 Introduction 3
    2 My Early Years 8
    3 The Mature Musician 15
    4 Joromi 23
    5 Tours and Trips 28
        Tour to Northern Nigeria 28
        Grand Overseas Tour of 1973 33
    6 Life in General 40

  • Coker, ‘Niyi Jr.:
    A Study of the Music and Social Criticism of African Musician Fela Anikulapo-Kuti.
    Studies in the History and Interpretation of Music , Book 100. University of Michigan.
    Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 2004. xvi & 152 p.
    ISBN 978-0773-46520-6

    CONTENTS

    Foreword
    Preface
    Introduction

    1. Fela Ransome-Kuti
    2. Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and the Afrospot Years 1970-75
    3. Kalakuta Republic
    4. Movement of the People (M.O.P.)
    5. Discography

    References
    Index

  • Bensignor, François:
    Fela – le Génie de l’afrobeat.
    Plogastel Saint-Germain: Editions Demi-Lune, 2012. 192 p.
    ISBN 978-2-917112-13-7

    TABLE DES MATIÈRES

    Préface 7
    Introduction 11

       I – Une ascendance prestigieuse 17
      II – La croix et le fouet 29
     III – Koola Lobitos : l’impasse de highlife jazz 37
      IV – L’Afrobeat prend vie 49
       V – Conscience rebelle : l’arme de l’Afrobeat 61
      VI – Entre provocation et résistance : le courage de dire 79
     VII – Héro de l’international underground 105
    VIII – Egypt 80 : le monde entend des voix 123
       IX – Afrobeat, l’arme du futur 141

    Annexes 153
    Glossaire 155
    Discographie sélective 161
    Bibliographie 175
    Ressources et liens Internet (webographie) 177
    Notes 179

  • Bender, Wolfgang:
    Der nigerianische Highlife.
    Musik und Kunst in der populären Kultur der 50er und 60er Jahre.
    Wuppertal: Edition Trickster im Peter Hammer Verlag, 2007. 572 p.
    ISBN 978-3-7795-0061-2

    INHALT

    Zum Geleit xi
    Danksagung xiii

    1 Einleitung 1

    2 Die sozialhistorische Ausgangslage im britisch-kolonialen Westafrika der Nachkriegsjahre 25
    2.1 Die Kolonialgeschichte Britisch-Westafrikas bis zum
           Zweiten Weltkrieg 25
    2.2 Die Auswirkung des Krieges auf die Kolonien 26
    2.3 Die Folgen des Zweiten Weltkriegs für die britischen
           Territorien in Westafrika 33
    2.4 Die soziokulturelle Situation in Nigeria nach dem
           Zweiten Weltkrieg 39
    2.4.1 Religion und die Afrikanisierung des Christentums 39
    2.4.2 Die Kunst-,,Workshops” 43
    2.4.3 Literatur 46
    2.4.4 Theater 46

    3 Musik im kolonialen Britisch-Westafrika 53
    3.1 Großbritannien hat sich als Kolonialmacht fest etabliert 53
    3.2 Die überlieferte Musikpraxis 54
    3.3 Kirchenmusik und klassische Musik Europas 56
    3.4 Militärmusik 72
    3.5 Die europäische Tanzmusik 78
    3.5.1 Das Accra Orchestra 85
    3.5.2 Tanzmusik im Radio 87
    3.6 Frühe Plattenproduktion westafrikanischer Musik 87
    3.7 Die Auswirkung der Tonsprachen auf das Verhältnis
           von Text und Musik 91
    3.8 Musik und Tanz-Motionen 94

    4 Highlife in Nigeria 99
    4.1 Exkurs: Der Vater des nigerianischen Highlife: Bobby Benson 99
    4.1.1 Zur Biographie 99
    4.1.2 „Taxi Driver” 107
    4.1.3 Kritik an Bobby Benson  110
    4.1.4 Der Tod von Bobby Benson 114
    4.1.5 Zur diskographischen Forschung 118
    4.2 Ghanaischer versus nigerianischer Highlife 126
    4.2.1 Was ist Highlife? 126
    4.2.2 Woher kommt der Highlife? 130
    4.2.3 Nigerianischer Rundfunk und Ghana-Highlife 144
    4.3 Die Musik 146
    4.3.1 Die Stile 146
    4.3.2 Sprache der Lieder 147
    4.3.3 Instrumental Ausstattung 149
    4.3.4 Instrumentenbesitz 155
    4.3.5 Die innermusikalische Struktur des Highlife 158
    4.3.6 Plattenzeit und Spielzeit 163
    4.3.7 Das Klangbild des Highlife – Probleme der
              Klangwunschvorstellungen in der Plattenproduktion 166
    4.4 Die Musiker 168
    4.4.1 Musiker sein. Die soziale Position der Musiker 168
    4.4.2 Sex und Gender im Highlife 170
    4.4.3 Bandleader und Besetzungen 172
    4.4.4 Liste mit einer Auswahl der wichtigsten Musiker im 
               nigerianischen Highlife 175
    4.4.5 Professionalismus 176
    4.4.6 The Three Night Wizards 178
    4.4.7 Der Status 183
    4.4.8 Musiker-Namen 185
    4.5 Der Tanz 193
    4.5.1 Die Bewegungsabläufe 193
    4.5.2 Twist-Highlife als Tanz 205
    4.5.3 Tanzforschung 208
    4.6 Das Publikum 209
    4.6.1 Wer besuchte die Highlife-Lokale? 209
    4.6.2 Jagua Nana – Highlife in Lagos und die ,,Good-Time-Girls” 213
    4.6.3 Spraying 218
    4.6.4 Diskurs der Gäste 219
    4.7 Kleidung 220
    4.7.1 „National Dress” 220
    4.8 Die Orte 224
    4.8.1 Open-Air-Lokale 224
    4.8.2 West End Hotel und andere Lokale 228
    4.8.3 Schließung eines Tanzlokals 231
    4.8.4 Offizielle Anlässe und private Veranstaltungen 232
    4.9 Die Tonträger – Ihre Produktion und Vermarktung 233
    4.9.1 Grammophone 233
    4.9.2 Schallplatten 236
    4.9.3 Schallplattenpreise 236
    4.9.4 Plattengeschäfte 237
    4.9.5 Plattenfirmen 238
    4.9.6 Decca 241
    4.9.7 Badejo’s Sound Studios  243
    4.9.8 Ogunde Records 245
    4.9.9 Nigerphone und Werner Becker 247
    4.9.10 Philips West African Records — die
                diskographischen Forschungsergebnisse 254
    4.9.11 Die Highlife-Produktion der sechziger Jahre 258
    4.9.12 EMI-Fabrik in Jos 265
    4.9.13 Die neuen kleinen Labels nach der Unabhängigkeit 266
    4.9.14 Verhältnis der Musiker und Plattenfirmen 266
    4.9.15 Vermarktung 267
    4.10 Presse 271

    5 ,,Praise Culture” in Nigeria 273
    5.1 Die historischen Wurzeln der ,,Praise Culture” in Nigeria 273
    5.1.1 Die oriki der Yoruba 273
    5.1.2 Die Igbo-Minstrels 275
    5.1.3 Die Hausa-Maroka 276
    5.2 Das Preislied 279
    5.2.1 Preislieder und Politik 280
    5.2.2 Der populäre Diskurs zu Wahlkampfzeiten 284
    5.2.3 Sport und Titelkämpfe im Highlife 298
    5.2.4 Diskurs der Melomanen 303
    5.2.5 Preislieder als gesungener Nachruf 304
    5.3 “A Literature of the People, by the People, and for 
            the People” — Preisliteratur — Politische Hagiographie 309
    5.3.1 Populäre Literatur am Beispiel der ,,Onitsha-Heftchen” 309
    5.4 ,,The Art of Highlife” – Preismalerei 315
    5.4.1 Die Schildermaler 319
    5.4.2 Zur Sammlungslage 325
    5.4.3 Wer waren die Künstler? 326
    5.4.4 Der Weg vom Land in die Stadt 328
    5.4.5 Malerei als Bindeglied zwischen Musik, Mode und Frisuren 332
    5.5 Preiskleidung 335
    5.5.1 ,,Commemorative Cloth” (Erinnerungsstoff) 335
    5.5.2 Preisstoffe 338
    5.5.3 Frauen- und Männerkleidung 349
    5.5.4 Yoruba-gele 350
    5.5.5 Bedruckte Stoffe 351
    5.5.6 Aso Ebi 352
    5.6 Preisfrisuren 354
    5.6.1 Frisuren im populären Kontext 354
    5.6.2 Friseurschilder 354
    5.6.3 Die Bedeutung der Frisuren 355
    5.6.4 Namen der Frisuren 361

    6 Highlife im Kontext der ,,Praise Culture” – Die Glorifizierung der Politiker 369
    6.1 Thema I: LUMUMBA 371
    6.1.1 Patrice Lumumba als historische Persönlichkeit 371
    6.1.2 Der Lumumba-Mythos 373
    6.1.3 ,,The Late Lion of the Congo” 376
    6.1.4 Lumumba Songs 384
    6.1.5 Malerei 398
    6.1.6 Frisuren 400
    6.1.7 Textilien 401
    6.1.8 Die Lumumba-Verehrung 404
    6.2 Thema II: AZIKIWE 407
    6.2.1 Historische Persönlichkeit 407
    6.2.2 Der ,,Zik”-Mythos 412
    6.2.3 Azikiwe – Onitsha-Portraits 414
    6.2.4 Azikiwe-Lied 420
    6.2.5 Azikiwe-Kunst 431
    6.2.6 Frisuren und nationalistische Gesinnung 435
    6.2.7 Azikiwe-Stoffe  436
    6.2.8 Photographic 437
    6.3 Thema III: KENNEDY 438
    6.3.1 President Kennedy – Die
              historische Persönlichkeit 438
    6.3.2 Der Kennedy-Mythos 438
    6.3.3 Die Kennedy-Heftchen 440
    6.3.4 Die Kennedy-Liedtexte 444
    6.3.5 Die Kennedy-Bilder 447
    6.3.6 Die Kennedy-Frisuren 447
    6.3.7 Kennedy-Stoffe 448

    7 Resume 451

    Bibliographie 457

    Diskographie 475
    7″-Singles, 45 r.p.m.  475
    7″-Extended Play Singles (EPs), 45 r.p.m. 488
    10″-LPs, 33 r.p.m. 493
    12″-LPs, 33 r.p.m. 494

    Abbildungsverzeichnis 499

    Abbildungen 507

  • Azike, Tochukwu I.:
    The Compilation of Bibliography on the Records of Oliver De Coque
    and his Ogene Sound Super of Africa.
    Institute of Education, Library Service, Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria), 1992. 20 p.

    CONTENTS

    Title i
    Certification ii
    Dedication iii
    Acknowledgement iv
    Purpose v
    Scope vi
    Arrangement vi
    Source of Information vi
    Table of Contents viii

    Part One
    Introduction/Life Story 1
    Contributions to Music 5
    Philosophy of Life 10

    Part Two
    Compilation of Oliver De Coque’s Recordings 13

  • Allen, Tony with Michael E. Veal:
    Tony Allen. An Autobiography of the Master Drummer of Afrobeat.
    Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2013. 199 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8223-5591-5

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments ix

    Introduction by Michael E. Veal 1
    Chapter one Right in the Center of Lagos 21
    Chapter two Highlife Time 36
    Chapter three The Sky Was the Limit 47
    Chapter four God’s Own Country 68
    Chapter five Swinging like Hell! 85
    Chapter six Everything Scatter 108
    Chapter seven Progress 128
    Chapter eight When One Road Close 146
    Chapter nine Paris Blues 162
    Chapter ten No End to Business 175

    Selected references 187
    Index 193

  • Alaja-Browne, Afolabi:
    Juju Music: A Study of its Social History and Style.
    Ph.D.  University of Pittsburgh, 1985. 187 p.
    ProQuest no. 8519449

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments vi
    List of Table x
    List of Figures xi

    Introduction 1
    Orientation of this Research 3
    Context of the Study  7

    Chapter 1
    The Formative Stage 14
    1.1 The Beginnings at Till Nelson Akamo Davies’s
           Motor Mechanic Workshop 14
    1.2 The Origin of the Word Jùjú in Jùjú Music 25
    1.3 Emergence, Acceptance and Early Growth 38

    Chapter 2
    The Developmental Stage 50
    2.1 The Rise of Exponents from the School of
           Abdulrafiu Basatunde King 50
    2.2 The Emergence and Contribution of Regional
           Exponents 66
    2.3 The Rise of the Superstars 72

    Chapter 3
    The Era of the Superstars: The Nineteeen Seventies 89

    Chapter 4
    Style in Juju Music:
    A Study of the Music of Abdulrafiu Babatunde King 108
    4.1 The Social Context of Style in the Music of
           Tunde King 110
    4.2 Stylistic Resources 112
    4.3 Stylistic Analysis 127

    Chapter 5
    Summary and Conclusions 165

    Appendix A
    Discography of some Commercial Recordings Made by
    Abdulrafiu Babatunde King in the Early 1950s.
    Source: Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation 171

    Appendix B
    Additional Photographs of some Juju Bandleaders
    in Nigeria. Source: Nigerian Newspapers and Magazines 172

    Sources Consulted 177

  • Ajirire, Tosin & Wale Alabi:
    3 Decades of Nigerian Music 1960-1990.
    Lagos: Limelight Showbiz Publication, 1992. 135 p.
    ISBN 978-30638-2-03

    CONTENTS

    Foreword  [7]
    Preface  [9]
    Appreciation  [11]

     1.  Afrobeat  13
     2.  Juju  19
     3.  Pop  33
     4.  Apala  45
     5.  Reggae  53
     6.  Fuji  65
     7.  Gospel  73
     8.  Kalangu  79
     9.  Highlife  85
    10. Folks  99
    11. Sakara  107
    12. Waka  113
    13. The Record Industry  117
    14. Promotions  121
    15. Associations  125
    16. Awards  127

    Conclusion  131

  • Ajirire Tosin & Wale Alabi:
    King Sunny Ade. An Intimate Biography.
    Lagos: Showbiz Publications, 1989. 96 p.
    ISBN 978-30638-0-4

    CONTENTS

    Preface 9
    Appreciation 10
    Prologue 13

    1. In the Beginning 15
    2. Learning the Ropes 21
    3. Stepping out 32
    4. Crisis and Conflicts 57
    5. Peace and Truce 67
    6. The King, The Myth 70
    7. Glimpses of the Future 79

    Epilogue 83
    Discography 87
    Appendix 89

  • Ajibero, Matthew Idowo:
    Yoruba Music on Grammophone Records:  A Comprehensive Annotated Discography of Chief Commander Ebenezer Obey’s Juju Music.
    B.A. Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria), 1978. xxvii & 56 p.

    CONTENTS

    Introduction xi
    What is Peculiar to Obey and his Music xii
    Mode of Arrangement xvii
    Problems and Limitations xviii
    Sources of Information xx
    Biography and Musical Career of Chief Commander Ebenezer Obey xxi
    Names of Inter-Reformers Band Members xxvi
    Bibliography xxvii

    Annotated Discography 1
    Subject Index 55

  • Ajayi, Tunji:
    King Sunny Ade. The Legend!
    Denver, Colo.: OutskirtsPress, 2009. 425 p.
    ISBN 978-1-4327-1105-4

    CONTENTS

    Dedication ix
    Introduction: The Hypnosis xi
    Appreciation xxi

     1. The Gestation and Formative Years 1
     2. The Metamorphosis 19
     3. The Enigmatic Man and Creativity 33
     4. Portrait of the Astute Manager 51
     5. The Polemics in Vibes 63
     6. The Interregnum in Music Empire 83
     7. The Octave in Tidal Waves 97
     8. On the Threshold to Eternal Honour 115
     9. The Crown 129
    10. The Post-Kingship Era I 137
    11. The Post- Kingship Era II 171
    12. The Post-Kingship Era III 211
    13. One Sickness Too Many 229
    14. The Afrikaness in His Vibrataions 249
    15. The Monograph: An Ode to a Sage 279
    16. The Vivacious African Beats Ensemble 295
    17. Making Waves Around the World 305
    18. The Great Man’s Mystiques at the Diamond Age 325
    19. The Exquisite (Get Up) U.S.A. Tour 337
    20. Brandishing Honours into the New Millennium 355
    21. The Master Guitarist: A Songster from another World! 375
    22. King Sunny Ade’s Millennial Glory 391

    Appendices
    KSA’s Table of Awards/Plaques 411
    Bibliography 421
    Author Profile 425

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The King of Fuji Music. Dr. Waisu Ayinde Anifowoshe Marshal.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1996. 120 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-9-6

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements i
    Dedication ii
    Introduction 1

     1 What fuji is all about 6
     2 The early players and influences 13
     3 Revolutionary days 18
     4 The emergence of Waisu Ayinde 24
     5 The road to stardom 30
     
     A picture is worth a 1,000 words 36-76

     6 Crowning of the fuji king 77
     7 The Marshal organisation 85
     8 Dynamism of fuji music 88
     9 The king as a family man 94

    10 What people say 99
    11 Appendix 109
    12 Index 114
    13 Reference 120

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The Highlife Years: History of Highlife in Nigeria.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1995. xvi & 136 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-4-5

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements i
    Dedication iii
    Preface iv
    Introduction ix

     1 Before Highlife 1
     2 Throughout The West Coast 6
     3 The Protagonists 18
     4 In Nigeria 23
     5 The Players within 36
     6 Dr. Victor Abimbola Olaiya 73
     7 Bala Miller 84
     8 Osadebe 87
     9 Oliver De Coque 91
    10 The Trios 98
    11 E. T. Mensah 111
    12 Highlife Players in Ghana 116
    13 Down The Drain? Possible Revival 120

    Index 123
    Reference 135

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The History of Juju Music in Nigeria.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1994. 155 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-3-7

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement i
    Dedication iii
    Preface iv

     1 Traditional music in Nigeria 1
     2 The roots of juju music 5
     3 Juju music pioneers 10
     4 The influence of highlife, kokoma & mambo 18
     5 The revolutionary days 25
     6 Pa I. K. Dairo 32
     7 Chief Ebenezer Obey 38
     8 King Sunny Ade 49
     9 Admiral Dele Abiodun 63
    10 Juju music propagators 69
    11 The new trends 88
    12 Shina Peters 96
    13 The trend setters 103
    14 The merchants 121
    15 Some record releases 145
    16 Juju musicians and base 150

    Index 151
    Reference 155

  • Ademowo, Paul ‘Wale:
    The History of Fuji Music in Nigeria.
    Dugbe, Ibadan: Effective Publishers, 1993. 132 p.
    ISBN 978-32208-0-2

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement
    Foreword
    Dedication
    Introduction

     1 Traditional Music in Nigeria 1
     2 Advent of Apala, Sakara, Dundun and Sekere 8
     3 Were Music, and the Pioneers 28
     4 The Change 36
     5 Alhaji Sikiru Balogun (Barrister) 40
     6 Alhaji Ayinla Kolawole Ilori (Kollington) 53
     7 Alhaji Wasiu Anifowoshe (Marshal) 64
     8 Alhaji Dauda Akanmu (Epo Akara) 73
     9 The Propagators of fuji music 83
    10 The Merchants 100
    11 Influence on the Society 117
    12 The New Trend, Any Hope? 120
    13 Room for improvement 122
    14 Artistes & Base 125
    15 Some records released 126
    16 References 132

  • Adédèjì, Adewale:
    Yoruba Culture and Its Influence on the Development of Modern Popular Music in Nigeria.
    Ph.D. The University of Sheffield, 2010. 288 p.

    CONTENTS

    Abstract 1
    Dedication 2
    Acknowledgements 3
    List of Figures 8

     

    Chapter One
    Introduction 10
    1:1 Background to Study 12
    1:2 The Beginning 14
    1:3 Aim and Purpose of Research 17
    1:4 Scope of Study 18
    1:5 Research Questions 19
    1:6 Research Methodology 20
    1:7 Fieldwork Experience 21
    1:8 Preview of Chapters 24

    Chapter Two
    Definition of Concepts and Theoretical Framework 27
    2:1 Introduction 27
    2:2 Popular Music, Language, Culture and The Issue of Identity 27
    2:3 Nigerian Music: Between ‘Popular’/ ‘Contemporary‘ and 
          ‘Traditional‘ / ‘Folk’ 38

    Chapter Three
    An Introduction to Nigeria and the Yorùbá People 44
    3:1 Introduction 44
    3:2 Nigeria: A Short Profile 44
    3:3 The Yorùbá people: Historical Background 55
    3:4 The Yorùbá Arts and Cultural Worldview 59
    3:5 Lagos City and The Evolution of Nigeria‘s Urban 
          Popular Culture 60
    3:6 Conclusions: Nigeria‘s Urban Popular Culture and
           The Yoruba influence 74

    Chapter Four
    Nigeria: What Manner of Music? 75
    4:1 Introduction 75
    4:2 Nigerian Popular Music: An Overview 75
    4:3 Nigerian Popular Music: 
          The Nation and Process of Emergence 79
    4:4 Styles of Popular Music in Nigeria 82
    4:5 The Nigerian Popular Music and the Underlying 
           Yorùbá Influence 102
    4:6 Conclusion 111

    Chapter Five
    The Nigerian Hip Hop Scene and the ‘Afro Hip Hop’ Identity 112
    5:1 Introduction 112
    5:2 Origin of Hip Hop 112
    5:3 Background to Nigeria‘s Hip Hop 116
    5:4 Hip Hop, ‘The Street‘ and The Nigerian Experience 122
    5:5 Nigeria‘s Afro Hip Hop: Style and Peculiarities 130
    5:6 Major Themes in Nigeria‘s Afro Hip Hop 139
    5:7 Afro Hip Hop: Why Yorùbá is the Preferred Medium
           of Communication 153
    5:8 Conclusion 167

    Chapter Six
    ‘Ruggedy Baba’: An Afro Hip Hop Case Study 169
    6:1 Introduction 169
    6:2 Ruggedman: Artist Profile 170
    6:3 ‘Ruggedy Baba‘ – Lyrics and Translation 172
    6:4 The Yorùbá Influence n ‘Ruggedy Baba‘ 176
    6:5 ‘Ruggedy Baba‘ and The Negotiation of Nigerian Identity 180
    6:6 Backgrounds to Popular Music Video and The Nigerian 
          Experience 185
    6:7 ‘Ruggedy Baba‘: Video Analysis 192
    6:8 Conclusion and Chapter Summary 207

    Chapter Seven
    Hip Hop, Fújì and the Use of Yorùbá Culture in Preventing Popular Music Homogenization 210
    7:1 Introduction: Hip Hop and Fújì; The Synergy 210
    7:2 Hip Hop and Fújì: Yorùbá Connection, Influences 
          and Similarities 211
    7:3 Hip Hop, Fújì and the Idea of Fusion‘ and ‘Crossover‘ 220
    7:4 Hip Hop and Fújì in Relation to Globalization and 
          Hybridization 238
    7:5 Conclusion 243

    Chapter Eight
    The Nigerian Music Industry: Challenges and Possibilities 244
    8:1 Introduction 244
    8:2 The Nigerian Music industry: An Overview 245
    8:3 Exit of Major Recording Labels 251
    8:4 The Challenges 254
    8:5 Possibilities and Recommendations 262
    8:6 Conclusion 263

    Summary and Conclusions 265

    References 268

    Appendix: Accompanying CDs 288

  • Erlmann, Veit (ed.):
    Populäre Musik in Afrika.

    Veröffentlichungen des Museum für Völkerkunde.
    Neue Folge 53. Abteilung Musikethnologie VIII.
    Berlin: Museum für Völkerkunde, 1991. 312 pp. & 2 CDs.
    ISBN 3-88609-213-5

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  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

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  • Sweeney, Philip:
    Directory of World Music. A Guide to Performers and their Music.
    With Contributions from Peter Gabriel, Andy Kershaw, Giberto Gil [&] Manu Dibango.
    London: Virgin Books, 1991. 262 p.
    Section Africa 1-81
    ISBN 0-86369-378-4

    sweeney1991CONTENTS

    AFRICA

    The North and West
    Introduction: Peter Gabriel 1
    Libya 3
    Tunisia 5
    Algeria 6
    Morocco 13
    Mauritania 16
    Senegal 17
    Mali 20
    Guinea 26
    Guinea-Bissau 29
    Cape Verde 29
    Sierra Leone 31
    Côte d’Ivoire 32
    Ghana 34
    Togo and Benin 36
    Nigeria 37

    Central Africa, The South and East
    Introduction: Manu Dibango 42
    Cameroon 44
    Zaire 49
    Congo 56
    Gabon 56
    Angola 57
    Zambia 58
    Mozambique 59
    Zimbabwe 60
    South Africa 65
    Madagascar 70
    Mauritius and Reunion 71
    Tanzania and Zanzibar 72
    Kenya 74
    Uganda 76
    Burundi 76
    Ethiopia 77
    Sudan 79

  • Lee, Hélène:
    Rockers d’Afrique. Stars et légendes du rock mandinque.
    Paris: Albin Michel, 1988. 223 pp.
    ISBN 2-226-03 139-1 

    TABLE DE MATIÈRESafropop1995

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