| East Africa general (2 or more countries) | Books | Articles |

> Kenya | Books | Articles |

See as well / Voir aussi / Veja também “East Africa general – Books”

Barkley, Divinity LaShelle:
Kaya Hip-Hop in Coastal Kenya: The Urban Poetry of Ukoo Flani.
University of Southern California (Los Angeles).
Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection. Paper 125, 2007. 46 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 264 KB

Chiuri, J. G.:
Pop Music is a Form of Oral Literature: A Survey on Joseph Kamaru.
P.G.D.E. Thesis. University of Nairobi, 1984.

Eisenberg, Andrew J.:
The Resonance of Place: Vocalizing Swahili Ethnicity in Mombasa, Kenya.
Ph.D. Columbia University (New York, N.Y.), 2009: 472 p.
ProQuest no. 3388445

Eagleson, Ian M.:
From Thum to Benga International:
Continuity and Change in the Music of the Luo of Kenya, 1950-2010.
Ph.D. Wesleyan University (Middletown, Conn.), 2012. 744 p.
ProQuest no. 3519894

Gitonga, Priscilla Nyawira:
Music as Social Discourse: The Contribution of Popular Music to
the
Awareness and Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Nairobi, Kenya.
M.M. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (Port Elizabeth), 2009. 238 p.
Contents – PDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 1.89 MB

King’ei, Geoffrey Kitula:
Language, Culture and Communication:
The Role of Swahili Taarab Songs in Kenya, 1963-1990.

Ph.D. Howard University (Washington, D.C.), 1992. vii & 240 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 6.39 MB

Maina wa Mũtonya:
The Politics of Everyday Life in Gĩkũyũ Popular Music of Kenya (1990-2000).
Ph.D. University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg), 2006.

Maina wa Mũtonya:
The Politics of Everyday Life in Gĩkũyũ Popular Music of Kenya.
Nairobi: Twaweza Communications Ltd., 2013. 172 p.
Contents

Ngige-Nguo, Josiah Edward:
The Role of Music amongst the Gikuyu of the Central Province of Kenya.
Ph.D. Queen’s University of Belfast, 1990. 676 p.
ISNI no. 0000 0001 3445 1895

Milu, Esther:
“Hatucheki Na Watu”:
Kenyan Hip-Hop Artists’ Theories of Multilingualism, Identity and Decoloniality.

Ph.D. Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.), 2016, xii & 195 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 2.88 MB

Ministry of State for National Heritage and Culture:
Music Policy.
[Nairobi]: June 2012. 41 p.
Contents – PDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 396 KB

Njenga, Maureen Charity Muthoni :
Mũgithi Perfomance as a Form of Social Cohesion among the Agĩkũyũ of Kenya.
M.M. University of KwaZulu-Natal (Durban), 2010. ix & 140 p.
Contents – PDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 2.79 MB

Nkonge , M.K.:
A Literary Study of the Songs of Joseph Kamaru: Theme and Style. 
B.E.D. Thesis. Kenyatta University (Nairobi), 1988.

Morin, Matthew McNamara:
Composing Civil Society:
Ethnographic Contingency, NGO Culture, and Music Production in Nairobi, Kenya.

Ph.D. Florida State University (Tallahassee, Fla.), 2012. xxi & 329 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 5.37 MB

Mwaniki, J. K. (ed.):
Kakai Kilonzo with Kilimambogo Brothers.
Nairobi: Audio Productions Ltd., n.d.

Ntarangwi, Mwenda G.:
Taarab Texts, Gender, and Islam in an Urban East African Context:
Social Transformations among the Waswahili of Mombasa, Kenya.
Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998. 359 p.
ProQuest no. 9904550

Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
The Street Is My Pulpit. Hip Hop and Christianity in Kenya.
Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2016, 206 p.
Contents

Nyairo, Joyce Wambũi:
“Reading the Referents”. (Inter) Textuality in Contemporary Kenyan Popular Music.
Ph.D. University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg), 2004. xxix & 283 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 2.88 MB

Okumu, Caleb Chrispo:
The Development of Kenyan Popular Guitar Music:
A Study of Kiswahili Songs in Nairobi.

M.A. Kenyatta University (Nairobi), 1998.

Omolo-Ongati, Rose Anyango (ed.):
A Biography of Kenyan Musicians, Vol. 1.
Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission, 2010. vii & 197 p.
ISBN 978-9966-21-025-8

Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
Retracing the Benga Rhythm.
Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2008. 23 p. CD & DVD
Contents

Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
Retracing Kikuyu Popular Music.
Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2010. 77 p. CD & DVD
Contents

Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
Retracing Kenya’s Funky Hits. Afro Boogie of the 70s & 80s.
Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2011. 85 p. CD & DVD
Contents

Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
Retracing Kenya’s Songs of Protest.
Music as a Force for Change in Kenya: 1963-2013.

Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2013. 105 p. CD & DVD
Contents

Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
Shades of Benga – The Story of Popular Music in Kenya: 1946 – 2016.
Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2017. xxi  & 649 p.
Contents

Otoyo, Donald & Emily Achieng Akuno:
Kenyan Musicians. A Biography. Volume 2.
Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission, 2018.

Owen, Caleb Edwin:
It was Just for Fun:
Taarab and the Construction of Community Identity in Two Kenyan Towns.

B.A. University of Oregon (Eugene, Oreg.), 2010. vi & 101 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 1.55 MB

Salm, Steven James:
Sitting Here in Limbo: Popular Music and Identity Transformation
among the Disenfranchised Youth of Freetown and Nairobi.

M.A. University of Texas at Austin, 1997.

Wallis, Roger & Krister Malm:
Big Sounds from Small Peoples.
The Music Industry in Small Countries.
London: Constable, 1984. 419 p.
Case study including Kenya
Kenya Index

Wambua, S. M.:
Mtindo wa nyimbo za Kaikai Kilonzo.
M.A. Kenyatta University (Nairobi), 2001.

Wanguhu, Michael (Producer/Director) & Written by Russell Kenya:
“Hip-Hop Colony” The African Hip-Hop Explosion.
Oakland Calif.: Emerge Media Films, 2007. 92 minutes DVD
ASIN no. B000MRA57E

Wetaba, Aggrey Nganyi R.:
Kenyan Hip-Hop as a Site of Negotiating Urban Youth Identities in Nairobi.
Ph.D. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität (Mainz). Göttingen: Sierke Verlag,  2009. 450 p.
Contents

Page created 23/09/2017 © afrobib.com – update 08/10/2018

  • Barkley, Divinity LaShelle:
    Kaya hip-hop in coastal Kenya: The urban poetry of Ukoo Flani.
    University of Southern California (Los Angeles).
    Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection. Paper 125, 2007. 46 p.

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements 3
    Abstract 4

    Introduction 5
       Hip-Hop & Kenyan Youth Culture
       Research Problem
       Status of Hip-Hop in Kenya
       Hypotheses
    The Setting 9
    Methodology: Data Collection 10
    Biases and Assumptions 13
    Discussion & Analysis 14
       Ukoo Flani ni nini?
       Kaya Hip-Hop
       Traditional Role of Music in African Culture
       Genesis of Rap/Hip-hop in American Ghettoes
       The Ties That Bind
       Kenyan Radio
       The Maskani
       Ghetto Life
       Will the real Ukoo Flani please stand up?
       Urban Poetry: Analyzing Ukoo Flani’s Lyrics
    Conclusion 33
       Conclusion Part I: The Future of Ukoo Flani
       Conclusion Part II: Hypotheses Results
       Conclusion Part III: Recommendations for Future SIT Students

    Bibliography 43

    Interview/Meeting Schedule 45
    ISP Review Sheet 46

  • Gitonga, Priscilla Nyawira:
    Music as Social Discourse: The Contribution of Popular Music to
    the Awareness and Prevention of HIV/Aids in Nairobi, Kenya.

    M.M. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (Port Elizabeth), 2009. xiii & 238 p.

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements vi
    Summary vii
    Key words viii
    List of abbreviations ix
    List of tables xi
    List of musical examples xii
    List of illustrations xiii

    Chapter 1
    Introduction to this study
    1. The aim of this study 1
    2. Rationale 2
    3. Research problem 6
    4. Objectives and research methods 7
    5. Delimitations of this study 8
    6. Outlay of chapters 9

    Chapter 2
    The people of Kenya
    1. Introduction 11
    2. Political history 12
    3. Culture 15
    4. Religion and worldview 19
    5. Language 23
    6. Music and dance 29
      6.1. Traditional music 29
      6.2. Popular music 34
        6.2.1. Benga 35
        6.2.2. Rumba and soukous 36
        6.2.3. Tanzanian rumba 37
        6.2.4. International pop 38
        6.2.5. Taarab 40
        6.2.6. Gospel music 41
    7. Gender 42

    Chapter 3
    HIV/Aids in Kenya
    1. Introduction 44
    2. Kenyan HIV/Aids statistics 45
    3. Factors influencing the spread of HIV/Aids in Kenya 48
      3.1. Predisposing factors 48
        3.1.1. Poverty 48
        3.1.2. Sexually transmitted infections 49
        3.1.3. Drug abuse and alcoholism 50
        3.1.4. Conflicts and ethnic wars 51
      3.2. Other contributing factors 52
        3.2.1. Cultural practices and perceptions 52
        3.2.2. Religion 59
    4. Those most vulnerable to HIV/Aids infection 59
    5. The impact of HIV/Aids at national level 60
      5.1. Socio-Economic impact 60
      5.2. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) 62
    6. Kenyan government interventions 63
      6.1. Leadership and co-ordination 63
      6.2. Existing Intervention strategies 65
        6.2.1. Voluntary counseling and testing 66
        6.2.2. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission 67
        6.2.3. Health system precautions and blood safety 68
        6.2.4. Condom promotion 68
        6.2.5. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections 69
        6.2.6. Creating awareness 69
        6.2.7. Treatment and care of people living with
                   HIV/Aids (PLWA) 71
    7. Visible achievements in the fight againist HIV/Aids in Kenya 72
    8. Challenges ahead 73

    Chapter 4
    The people of Nairobi
    1. Introduction 77
    2. History of Nairobi 78
    3. Population and culture of Nairobi 79
    4. Functions of Nairobi 80
      4.1. Administrative centre 80
      4.2. Business and economy centre 81
      4.3. Tourism centre 82
      4.4. Education centre 82
      4.5. Media centre 83
      4.6. Transport Hub .85
      4.7. Sports Centre 86
      4.8. Music, Literature and Film Centre .87
      4.9. Residential Area90
    5. Language 91
    6. Religion 92
    7. Social problems 93
      7.1. Crime 93
      7.2. Drug abuse and alcoholism 93
      7.3. HIV/Aids 94

    Chapter 5
    Theoretical approaches in popular music studies
    1. Introduction 97
    2. Musicological approaches to popular music analysis 104
      2.1. Schenkerian analysis 106
      2.2. Style analysis 108
      2.3. Multiparameter analysis 110
      2.4. Performance analysis 116
    3. Extra-musicological approaches to popular music analysis 118
      3.1. Sociological and cultural studies 118
        3.1.1. Ethnomusicological approaches 119
        3.1.2. Subculture analysis 120
      3.2. Semiological analysis 125
      3.3. Feminism, gender and sexuality 130
    4. An “eclectic” semiotic approach to African popular
        music analysis 133

    Chapter 6
    Reading Kenyan popular music:
    Unpopular message in a popular song
    1. Introduction 138
    2. The artists 142
      2.1. Wasike wa Musungu 142
      2.2. Circute and Jo-el 144
      2.3. The Longombas 144
      2.4. Princess Jully 146
    3. Music and Text 148
      3.1. Wasike wa Musungu: Lulumbe 148
        3.1.1 The Lyrics of Lulumbe (Strange Killer Disease) 148
        3.1.2. The Music of Lulumbe (Strange Killer Disease) 155
        3.1.3. Performance analysis 159
        3.1.4. Social significance of the music and text 161
      3.2. Circute and Jo-el: Juala 162
        3.2.1. The lyrics of Juala (Condom) 162
        3.2.2. The music of Juala (Condom) 170
        3.2.3. Performance analysis 174
        3.2.4. Social significance of the music and text 175
      3.3. Longombas: Vuta Pumz 177
        3.3.1. The Lyrics of Vuta Pumz (Take a Deep Breath) 177
        3.3.2. The Music of Vuta Pumz (Take a Deep Breath) 182
        3.3.3. Performance analysis 189
        3.3.4. Social significance of the music and the text 190
      3.4. Princess Jully: Dunia Mbaya Chunguzee 192
        3.4.1. The lyrics of Dunia Mbaya Chunguze (The World Is Dreadful, Mind Yourselves) 192
        3.4.2. The music of Dunia Mbaya Chunguze 200
        3.4.3. Performance analysis 203
        3.4.4. Social significance of the music and text 205
    4. Conclusion to this chapter 206

    Chapter 7
    Conclusion to this study 209

    Sources 213

    Addendums
    Addendum A
    Wasike wa Musungu discography 228
    Addendum B
    Circute and Jo-el discography 230
    Addendum C
    The Longombas discography 230
    Addendum D
    Princess Jully discography 231
    Addendum E
    Trancription of verbal interview(s) with Wafula Mukasa 233
    Addendum F
    Compact Disc recordings: 238
    Track 1 – Lulumbe: Wasike wa Musungu
    Track 2 – Juala: Circute and Jo-el
    Track 3 – Vuta Pumz: Longombas
    Track 4 – Dunia Mbaya Chunguze: Princess Jully

  • King’ei, Geoffrey Kitula:
    Language, Culture and Communication.
    The Role of Swahili Taarab Songs in Kenya, 1963-1990.
    Ph.D. Howard University (Washington, D.C.), 1992. vii & 240 p.

    CONTENTS

    Cover page i
    Dissertation committee ii
    Dedication iii
    Acknowledgments iv
    Abstract v
    Table of contents vi

    Chapter 1
    Introduction
    1.1 The Country of Research, Kenya 1
       1.1.1 Climate and Geography 1
       1.1.2 History and Politics 2
       1.1.3 Kenya’s Cultural Diversity 3
       1.1.4 The Swahili Community 6
    1.2 The City of Mombasa 7
    1.3 The Place of Oral Tradition in Kenya’s Culture 9
    1.4 Purpose and Objectives 13
    1.5 Nature of the Problem 13
    1.6 Research Questions 14
    1.7 Hypothesis 14
    1.8 Theoretical Framework 15
    1.9 Methodology 19
    1.10 Anticipated Contribution of the Study 21
    1.11 Review of Literature 23
    1.12 Scope and Limitations 27
    1.13 Definition of Terms 29
    Endnotes 30

    Chapter 2
    Origin and Development of East African Swahili Taarab
    2.1 Introduction 34
    2.2 Historical Background 34
    2.3 Performance of Swahili Taarab 36
    2.4 Contemporary Situation 44
    Endnotes 50

    Chapter 3
    Style and Language in Swahili Taarab
    3.1 Introduction 52
    3.2 Problems ofMeaning in Swahili Taarab 53
    3.3 Style and Fonn in Swahili Taarab Songs 59
    3.4 Grammar and Diction in Taarab Songs 75
    3.5 Content and Methods of Delivery 81
    Endnotes 100

    Chapter 4
    Dominant Political Themes in Taarab
    4: 1 Introduction 102
    4.2 The artist and the Political Environment 104
    4.3 The Question of Commitment 106
    4.4 Politics in Swahili Taarab Songs 109
    Endnotes 130

    Chapter 5
    Sociocultural Themes in Swahili Taarab
    5.1 Introduction 131
    5.2 Theme of Love and Romance 131
    5.3 Didactic Themes 139
    5.4 Religious Themes 145
    5.5 Current Issues and Humor 149
    Endnotes 158

    Chapter 6
    Images of Women in Swahili Taarab
    6.1 Introduction 159
    6.2 Swahili Female Taarab Artists 180
    6.3 Summary and Implications 183
    6.4 Recommendations 187
    Endnotes 189

    Bibliography 192

    Appendix A 199
    Appendix B 200
    Appendix C 215
    Appendix D 223
    Appendix E 228
    Appendix F 232

  • Maina wa Mũtonya:
    The Politics of Everyday Life in Gĩkũyũ Popular Music of Kenya.
    Nairobi: Twaweza Communications Ltd., 2013. 172 p.
    ISBN 978-9966-028-44-0

    CONTENTS

    Dedication iii
    About the Author vii
    Acknowledgements ix
    Preface xi

    Chapter One
    Introduction 1
    Chapter Two
    The Politics of Everyday Life in Select Gĩkũyũ Popular Music
    (1990-2000) 26
    Chapter Three
    Praise and Protest: Music and Contesting Patriotisms in
    Postcolonial Kenya 51
    Chapter Four
    Joseph Kamarũ’s Music: Cutting with Words, not Swords 70
    Chapter Five
    ‘Touch What You Don’t Have’: Mũgithi, One-Man Guitar and
    Urban Identities 95
    Chapter Six
    Mũgithi Performance: Popular Music, Stereotypes and
    Ethnic Identity 118
    Conclusion
    Music and Society: The Consummate Marriage 140
    Postscript
    Jane Nyambura (Queen Jane) 1965- 2010 148

    Bibliography 155

  • Milu, Esther:
    “Hatucheki Na Watu”: Kenyan Hip-Hop Artists’ Theories of Multilingualism, Identity and Decoloniality.
    Ph.D. Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.), 2016, xii & 195 p.

    CONTENTS

    List of tables x
    List of figures xi

    Introduction
    Entering the rhetoric and composition language wars 1

    Chapter 1
    History of hip-hop in Kenya:
    Socio-economic, political and sociolinguistic context
    18
    Socio-economic and political context 19
    Hip-hop routes to Africa 23
    Early hip-hop in Kenya: From the suburbs to the inner city 27
    Mapping the Nairobi urban space 28
    The pioneers of Kenyan hip-hop 30
    Kenyan hip-hop and language use: In the beginnings 32
    Kenyan media and its role in spreading of hip-hop culture
    in early 1990s 36

    Chapter 2
    Methods and methodology 39
    In-depth phenomenological interviewing 40
    Interview one: Focused life history 41
    Interview two: The details of experience 42
    Interview three: Reflection on the meaning 43
    Building a trans lingual analytical framework 44

    Chapter 3
    Rappin like a Mkenya:
    Translingualism as a construction of new ethnicities
    47
    Resisting Ethnic Identification 50
    Jua Cali’s Story: Neither a Mtaita nor a Mluhya 53
    Abbas Kubaff’s Story: A Kenyan but mostly a Pan-African 63
    Nazizi Hirji’s story:
    A combination of six different races and things 68
    Conclusion 74

    Chapter 4
    “Wakilisha mtaani”: Trans lingualism as a performance
    of street-conscious identity
    76
    Language and construction of a street- conscious
    identity in hip-hop 78
    But, can Nazizi wakilisha the Kenyan mtaa, streets? 85
       Matatu ride as an everyday street practice 88
       Storytelling as an everyday street practice 98
       Ways of dressing as an everyday street practice .102
    Conclusion 108

    Chapter 5
    “Kuna Sheng”: Trans lingualism as language activism 109
    “Kuna Sheng”: A language activism song 111
    Promoting critical language awareness in the Kenyan media 114
    Practicing and advocating for language preservation 127
    Impact of Jua Cali’s language activism work: Conclusion 137

    Chapter 6
    “Tugenge yajayo”: Discussion of findings and implications 140
    Multilingual theories as negotiated 140
    Trans lingual practice in Kenya is tied to decolonization 146
    Linguistic culture(s) shapes a person’s trans lingual practices 150
    Is trans lingualism enough? 152

    Appendices 155
    Appendix A: My research story 156
    Appendix B: Interview protocol 188

    References 190

  • Ministry of State for National Heritage and Culture:
    Music Policy.
    [Nairobi]: June 2012. 41 p.

    CONTENTS

    Chapter 1
    Introduction
    1.1 Background and context 4
    1.2 Definition of music 6
    1.3 Rationale for the policy 6
    1.4 Vision 7
    1.5 Mission 7
    1.6 Objectives of the policy 7

    Chapter 2
    The music industry
    2.1 The situation analysis 9
    2.2 Music education and training 12
    2.3 Documentation and archiving 15
    2.4 Media and advertising 17
    2.5 The music and national identity 18
    2.6 Music and tourism 21
    2.7 Music performance 23
    2.8 National development agenda 24
    2.9 Music and technology 27

    Chapter 3
    Rights associated with music and artists
    3.1 Copyright and intellectual property rights 30
    3.2 Enforcement of the bill of rights 32

    Chapter 4
    Funding
    4.1 Investing in music and musicians 35
    4.2 Financial management 37

    Chapter 5
    Legal and institutional framework
    5.1 Registration and affiliation of music organisations 38
    5.2 Nationai music board 39

    Chapter 6
    Implementation plan 40

    Appendices 41

    List of accronyms

  • Njenga, Maureen Charity Muthoni :
    Mũgithi Perfomance as a Form of Social Cohesion among the Agĩkũyũ of Kenya.
    M.M. University of KwaZulu-Natal (Durban), 2010. ix & 140 p.

    CONTENTS

    Declaration ii
    Acknowledgements iii
    Table of Contents iv
    List of Illustrations vi
    Abstract of Dissertation ix

    Chapter One
    Introduction 1
    1.1 The Agĩkũyũ People 3
    1.2 Research Problems and Objectives 8
    1.3 Literature Review 9
        1.3.1 The Mwomboko Dance 10
        1.3.2 Mwomboko within Mũgithi 13
    1.4 Principal theories in which this study is based upon 14
    1.5 Research Methodology and Methods 15
    1.6 Summary abstract of the rest of the chapters 20
    1.7 Glossary of Terms 22

    Chapter Two
    History of Mwomboko, Gĩcandĩ and Irua 23
    2.1 Irua Music 24
    2.2 Gĩcandĩ Music 27
    2.3 Mwomboko Music 29
    2.4 Conclusion 32

    Chapter Three
    The Birth of the 1990s Mũgithi Concept
    Through its Performers
    34
    3.1 The Birth and Development of Mũgithi Music (1970s-1980s) 35
        3.1.1 Joseph Kamaru 37
    3.2 The Birth and Develoment of the Mũgithi Performance 
          (1990s- 2009) 39
        3.2.1 Mike Rua 43
        3.2.2 Salim ‘Junior’ 46
        3.2.3 Salim ‘Mighty’ 49

    Chapter Four
    Mũgithi Music and the Establishment of Style 53
    4.1 Mũgithi through the Singer-cum-guitarist and 
          Drummer Performance Concept 54
    4.2 Mũgithi’s use of Popular Music 57
    4.3 Mwomboko Section 58
        4.3.1 Gĩcandĩ Lyrics 59
        4.3.2 Voice and Guitar Relationship 63
        4.3.3 lrua Lyrics 72
    4.4 Gospel Music 73
    4.5 Conclusion 73

    Chapter Five
     Social Cohesion through Performance 75
    5.1 Mwomboko Music and Social Cohesion 76
        5.1.1 Mboco Ĩrĩ Mbuca 76
        5.1.2 Cheni Ni Cheni 79
        5.1.3 Twathiaga Tukenete 80
        5.1.4 Kibata Kia Matuko Maya 83
        5.1.5 Ngahikania Nenda 84
    5.2 Conclusion 85

    Bibliography 92

    Appendix I
    Transcriptions 96
    Appendix II
    Film- Paper Edit 139

  • Morin, Matthew McNamara:
    Composing Civil Society: Ethnographic Contingency, NGO Culture, and Music Production in Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ph.D. Florida State University (Tallahassee, Fla.), 2012. xxi & 329 p.

    CONTENTS

    List of Figures xiii
    List of Musical Examples xvii
    Abstract xx

    1. Introduction: Composing civil society 1
    1.1 Purpose and Argument 1
    1.2 Theory: Positioning a theory of ethnographic contingency 7
    1.3 Research methodology: A contingent ethnographic method 13
    1.4 Literature Review 21
    1.5 Background 33
    1.6 Chapter outline: A contingently structured text 43

    Part 1
    2. NGO development, Kenyan music culture, and global NGO music industry initiatives 47
    2.1 Introduction 47
    2.2 NGO Culture Development 49
    2.3 NGO music culture contexts 57
       2.3.1 The international popular music industry and 
                 the spread of NGOs into Africa 57
       2.3.2 Historical contexts of NGO-oriented music culture 
                 in East Africa 59
       2.3.3 Civil Society-oriented music organizing in East Africa 60
       2.3.4 Civil society ethos in East African music performance 62
       2.3.5 Music as protest 66
    2.4 Conclusion 67

    3. Civil society discourse formations:
    Mapping Nairobi’s NGO music culture-scape
    69
    3.1 Introduction 69
    3.2 Locating NGO music culture 70
    3.3 Classificatory criteria 73
    3.4 International organizations 79
    3.5 Kenyan-based organizations 89
    3.6 Conclusion 105

    4. Economies of rememberance: NGO initiatives for the relocalization of East African popular music 106
    4.1 Introduction 107
    4.2 Decline: Destabilization of the mainstream Kenyan popular 
          music industry 108
    4.3 Adapt: Strategies of music production and NGO economy 110
    4.4 Rise: NGO music culture networks 116
    4.5 Remembrance: Advocacy for past and present local 
          music culture 118
    4.6 Conclusion 121

    Part 2
    5. Interlude:
    Situating Part 2, a monograph of Ketebul Music
    124
    5.1 Introduction 124
    5.2 Introducing a fieldwork-based study of Ketebul Music 125
    5.3 Ketebul Music, a brief overview 127
    5.4 Ketebul Music, afro-fusion, world music discourses, and 
          musicological critique 135
    5.5 Conclusion 138

    6. Contingencies of life experience in memory:
    Reflections of founder and executive director, Tabu Osusa 139
    6.0 Conceptual signpost 139
    6.1 Introduction 139
    6.2 Individual as agent of cultural change 141
       6.2.1 Childhood and polycultural influence 142
       6.2.2 Early migrations:
                 Preparing a life of continual reinvention and relocation 143
       6.2.3 Individualism and agency: 
                Musical protests at the seminary 145
       6.2.4 Resilience and resolution 146
       6.2.5 Musical apprenticeship: Journey to Kinshasa 149
       6.2.6 The Virunga years:
                 Recollections of Tabu Osusa and Samba Mapangala 151
       6.2.7 Music and politics 160
       6.2.8 The immigrant experience: 
                 Life in the United Kingdom and returning to Kenya 161
       6.2.9 Seeds of the afro-fusion movement: 
                 Formation of Nairobi City Ensemble 162
       6.2.10 HIV/AIDS and a lost generation 164
       6.2.11 Music studio as culture weapon:
                  The formation of Ketebul Productions 166
       6.2.12 Commercial to nonprofit: Ketebul Music turns NGO 168
    6.3 Conclusion 169

    7. Social contingencies of organizational identity:
    The music of Makadem and Olith Ratego
    170
    7.0 Conceptual signpost 170
    7.1 Introduction 171
    7.2 Constructing afro-fusion: The first Ketebul Music artists 172
    7.3 Makadem 174
    7.4 Olith Ratego 193
     7.5 Conclusion 205

    8. Social politics of institutional partnering:
    The spotlight on Kenyan music initiative
    207
    8.0 Conceptual signpost 207
    8.1 Introduction 207
    8.2 The development of the spotlight on Kenyan music initiative 208
    8.3 Socio-institutional convergences of genre construction 209
    8.4 Marketing cross-cultural: Volumes one and two 211
    8.5 Bridging divides and reconciliation:
          Volumes three, four, and five 213
    8.6 Social politics and institutional partnerships 216
       8.6.1 Alliance Française 216
       8.6.2 Alliance Française, Kenya 217
       8.6.3 Ketebul Music 221
       8.6.4 Kenyan department of culture 226
       8.6.5 Sponsors and marketing: 
                The French embassy and Total Oil 228
       8.6.6 The 9th European Development Fund grant 232
    8.7 Conclusion 238

    9. Studio ethnography:
    The “sound” of Ketebul producer, Jesse Bukindu
    240
    9.0 Conceptual signpost 240
    9.1 Introduction 240
    9.1.1 Studio ethnography 241
    9.2 The creation of Gargar and Somali identity in Kenya 243
    9.3 The production of Garissa Express (2011) 246
    9.4 Digital production and (ethno)musicological representation 248
       9.4.1 Vocal segmentation 250
       9.4.2 Instrumental infusion 252
       9.4.3 Signifying foreign locals and parallel otherness 257
       9.4.4 Fusing “traditional” and “modern” 258
       9.4.5 Post-production 259
    9.5 Conclusion 261

    10. Documentary film production at Ketebul Music:
    Molding postcolonial historical discourse 262
    10.0 Conceptual Signpost 262
    10.1 Introduction 262
       10.1.1 Synopsis of retracing the benga rhythm (2008) 264
       10.1.2 Synopsis of retracing Kikuyu popular music (2010) 265
    10.2 Social processes of historical documentary production 266
       10.2.1 Funding 266
       10.2.2 Forging lineages of african discourse 267
       10.2.3 Media production and self-directed mentorship 270
       10.2.4 Research and information gathering 271
       10.2.5 Post-research 275
    10.3 From process to product: Textual analyses of retracing 
             the benga rhythm (2008) and retracing Kikuyu popular
             music (2010) 278
       10.3.1 Subversion of popular discourse in retracing
                  the benga rhythm (2008) 279
       10.3.2 Polyvocality in retracing the benga rhythm (2008) 281
       10.3.3 Reconciliation and cultural hybridization in retracing
                  Kikuyu popular music (2010) 284
    10.4 Conclusion 287

    11. Conclusion:
    Locating meaning in contingent realms of global culture
    289
    11.1 Introduction 289
    11.2 Balancing broad and specific, macro and micro, 
            global and local 290
    11.3 Deconstructing representation 291
    11.4 A Contingency-induced pragmatically reflexive statement 292

    Appendices 296
    A. Extended transcriptions of analyzed recordings 296
    B. Human subjects approval 303
    C. 9th European Development Fund 2010 Vital Voices And Culture:
         Increasing People’s Participation in Good Governance and
         Development call for proposals (CFP) 304
    D. Oral sources 309

    References 312

    Biographical sketch 330

  • Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
    The Street Is My Pulpit. Hip Hop and Christianity in Kenya.
    Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2016, 206 p.
    ISBN 978-0-252-04006-1 (cloth) 978-0-252-08155-2 (pbk) 978-0-252-09826-0 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Table of Contents vii
    List of Illustrations ix
    Foreword by Juliani (Julius Owino) xi

    Preface xiii
    Acknowledgments xix

    1. Intersections, Overlaps, and Collaborations 1
    2. Cultural Preferences, Christianity, and the Street 23
    3. Hip Hop’s Recasting of Christianity and Gospel Music in Kenya 46
    4. Kama Si Sisi Nani? Juliani’s Gospel of Self-Empowerment 49
    5. Media and Contested Christian Identities 95
    6. Juliani: Lyrical Genius with a Socially Conscious Message 119
    Conclusion: Parallel but Intersecting Paths 141

    Appendix: Shops Selling Juliani’s Exponential Potential 151

    Notes 153
    Glossary 157
    Discography 159
    Bibliography 161
    Index 177

  • Nyairo, Joyce Alice Wambũi:
    “Reading the Referents”. (INTER) Textuality in Contemporary Kenyan Popular Music.
    Ph.D. University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg), 2004. xxix & 283 p.

    CONTENTS

    Declaration
    Abstract
    Dedication
    Acknowledgements
    Abbreviations

    Part 1
    Introduction xi
           
    Chapter One
    ‘Poverty, piracy, poor facilities and government indifference’:
    the political economy of the Kenyan Music industry 1
    1.1 The Production of culture 2
       1.1.1 The example of ‘Unbwogable’ 4
    1.2 Then and now: A profile of Kenya’s music industry 10
        1.2.1 Of media hype and the millennium boom 14
    1.3 Piracy 20
        1.3.1 Polic(y)ing the industry 26
    1.4 The markets 30
    1.5 Conclusion 36

    Part 2

    Chapter Two
    The In(ter)vention of names 39
    2.1 Author(is)ing authority 41
    2.2 In Search of the authentic 52
    2.3 Discourses from afar 60
    2.3.1 The middle ground 68
    2.4 The power of the nickname 69
    2.5 ‘My signifier is more native [Kenyan] than yours’ 72

    Chapter Three
    Zilizopendwa: Between the romantic and the discordant –
    cover versions, remix and sampling in the (re)membering of Kenya 79
    3.1 Popular music as memory 81
    3.2 Zilizopendwa as cover versions 86
        3.2.1 Modernising the folksongs 90
    3.3 Remix: Irony and disjuncture 98
    3.4 Remix as continuity 105
    3.5 Samples of the past 113
    3.6 Conclusion 122
     
    Chapter Four
    (Re)Figuring the city: The mapping of places and people 125
    4.1 Theorising space 126
    4.2 Nairobi: ‘Green city in the sun’ 130
    4.3 Walking in the margins vs. walking in the city 140
        4.3.1 Of local Mona Lisas 144
        4.3.2 Thugs and conmen 147
    4.4 Conclusion 152

    Chapter Five
    Kenyan hip hop: Of global networks and the circulation
    of local soundtracks
    157
    5.1 ‘Bridges of Sound’: More than global, less than local 159
    5.2 ‘Uhiki’ and the Legacy of ‘Put up Your Hands and 
           You Scream’ 164
        5.2.1 Matatus: Soundtracks and trendsetters 171
        5.2.2 ‘Ting Badi Malo’ and the further domestication 
                  of hip hop 176
    5.3 ‘Ukilya Moko’: Gospel goes hip hop 183
    5.4 Conclusion 189

    Chapter Six
    ‘Ritwa Riaku’ and ‘Unbwogable’: National Longing and the antinomies of the postcolonial nation 193
    6.1 Reading postcolonial politics 194
    6.2 Corruption and ethnicity in Sawa Sawa 203
        6.2.1 ‘Daima’: Between cycles of betrayal and hope 217
    6.3 Transforming ethnic discourse into national desire 224
        6.3.1 Rewriting national history 227
    6.4 Conclusion 235

    Conclusion 240

    Works cited 254
    Selected discography 270

    Appendix     
    i) Interviews 272
    ii) Web discourse 273
    iii) Kalapapla (2003) album sleeve 277
    iv) Web discourse 278
    v) Map — Nairobi metropolitan area 280
    vi) Adverts
        a) Nissan Hardbody – Atoti 281
        b) Flamingo Airlines – ‘But Do we Say’ 282
        c) VCT – Eric Wainaina 283

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing the Benga Rhythm.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2008. 23 p. CD & DVD
    No ISBN number or EAN code available

    CONTENTS

    Setting the Background 2
    What exactly is Benga Music? 2
    Tradition – Adaptations and Innovations 3
    Transition to Benga 4
    The Ogara Years 4
    John Ogara Odondi “Kaisa”
    Samuel Aketch Oyosi “Jabuya”
    Electric Bands and Big Producers 5
    Ochieng’ Nelly Orwa
    Melodica’s Teeth
    1960s-1970s the Golden Decades 7
    Oluoch Kanindo
    Ochieng Nelly Mengo
    George Ramogi
    Collela Mazee
    Benga Spreads its Wings 10
    – Kisii Nyanza
    – Western
    – Christopher Monyoncho Arka
    – Sukuma bin Ongaro
    – Angelica Chepkoec
    – Rift Valley
    – Central
    – Eastern
    – D.K. Mwai
    – Francis Danger
    Shapers of Benga 15
    D. O. Misiani
    River Road and the “Sessionists” 16
    Benga Mediums 17
    Benga Beyond Kenya 18
    Origin of the World 18
    Does Benga have a Future? 18
    Paul Orwa “Jasolo”
    – Eric Wainaina
    The Benga Ladies 22
    Anthology of Early Music Poets 23

    CD
    01. SAMUEL AKETCH John Ogara / Ochieng’ Nelly (1965)
    02. MONICA ONDEGO John Ogara (1963)
    03. MY BEST WISHES TO CONNY
           George Ojijo / George Ramogi (1972)
    04. LALA SALAMA D. O. Misiani (1973)
    05. SEREFANUS ANDAI  Shem Tube Andai / Simon Ayuya (1975)
    06. I LOVE YOU D. K. Mwai (1970)
    07. AMUKA SALAMA D. O. Misiani (1974)
    08. NINKI MOGATEGETE John Arisi Osababu (unknown)*
    09. SABINA YA NELLY Nelson Ochieng’ Mengo (1977)
    10. WAKUMBUKE WAZAZI
          Kakai Kilonzo / Francis Danger (1989)
    11. KWAHERI JOHANA Kalenjin Sisters (1990)
    12. MAXIMILLA Sukuma Bin Ongaro (1990)
    13. ARUWA DR. O.K. Dr. Collela Mazee (1980)

    *Exact recording dates are difficult to determine as many songs
      of this era had little information printed on the record labels.

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing Kikuyu Popular Music.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2010. 77 p. CD & DVD
    ISBN N/A – EAN code 6-164001-943019

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Dr. Joyce Nyairo 5

    1. Mapping the Music 6
    From the 1890s, The oral traditions of the Gikuyu were greatly disrupted and eroded by their protracted encounters with British colonialism.

    2. Influences: The Accordion, Yodelling, and, the Acoustic Guitar 10
    Modern Gikuyu musicians echo some of the key characteristics of American Country musicians, including their dress style, complete with stetson hats, cowboy boots 6 denim suits.

    3. The Emergence of Joseph Kamaru 25
    With over 3,000 compositions performed in at least 3 languages and in an array of styles and genres, Kamaru is the undisputed King of Kikuyu popular music.

    4. The Benga Invasion and the Boys from Gatanga 32
    The 1970s saw Kikuyu music grow in new directions as artistes engaged in collaborations with musicians from other communities, in particular Luo guitarists skilled in Benga.

    5. Gospel Wins the Day! 54
    Gospel music by the Akorino sect represented the authentic Kikuyu gospel rhythms.

    6. Production: River Road, Radio and Road Shows 57
    During the reign of pioneer Kikuyu musicians recording was a haphazard affair dependent upon the whims of the international recording labels of the time such as East African Records.

    7. Mugithi Nights: The Return to Roots 63
    The old Pentecostal Kikuyu hymn that celebrates ‘Mugithi wa Matu-ini’ (the train to the heavens) is the genesis of the term Mugithi.

    8. New Directions: Kameme Online 75
    The future of Kikuyu popular music seems to belong to those artistes who can retain the essence of Kikuyu rhythm and idiom while at the same time welding these sounds to global music forms.

    CD

    01. NYERI KWA RUBATHI Shinda Gikombe (1952)
    02. MAYAI John Arthur (1948)
    03. KWINI MARITATI H.M. Karuiki (1978)
    04. ROSANNA Sammy Ngaku (1948)
    05. GIKUU NI KIURU Wanganangu & Meeciria (1985)
    06. GWITU NI RIABAI  Sammy Ngaku (1948)
    07. NDINAKURUMA Mwangi wa Maguru (1957)
    08. KUNDA RURU Roman Warigi (1962)
    09. MUTHONI COOKA THIKA Roman Warigi (1962)
    10. MUHIKI Roman Warigi (1962)
    11. NDARI IKUMI NA INYA Joseph Kamaru (1966)
    12. NDARI YA MWARIMU Joseph Kamaru (1969)
    13. ANDU A MADARAKA Joseph Kamaru (1969)
    14. NJOHI NDIRI MWARIMU Joseph Kamaru (1966)
    15. RUGANO RWA NAIVASHA S. K. Kimani (1979)
    16. SINYORITA Francis Rugwiti (1979)
    17. CUCU WA GAKUNGA  John Ndichu (1978)
    18. TIGA KUMUTE J. B. Maina (1992)
    19. NANA D.K. Mwai (1976)

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing Kenya’s Funky Hits. Afro Boogie of the 70s & 80s.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2011. 85 p. CD & DVD
    ISBN N/A – EAN code 6-164001-943088

    CONTENTS

    Foreword 7

    1. James Brown 8
    2. The Starlight Club 10
    3. Robbie Armstrong 12
    4. The Ashantis 14
    5. Cavaliers 16
    6. Air Fiesta Matata 18
    7. Steele Beuttah 20
    8. Hodi Boys 22
    9. Faisal Brown 24
    10. JumaToto 26
    11. Slim Ali 28
    12. Ben Nicholas 30
    13. Kelly Brown 32
    14. Ismael Jingo 34
    15. Sal Davies 36
    16. Makonde 40
    17. Alan Donovan 42
    18. African Heritage 44
    19. Musikly Speaking 45
    20. Gordon Ominde 46
    21. From The Funky Photo File 48
    22. The Boogies 64
    23. Funk Radio 66
    24. Abdul Haq 68
    25. George Opiyo 69
    26. Kazungu Katana 69
    27. Nicola Miyawa 70
    28. Mahanjam Mike 71
    29. Salaams Clubs 72
    30. Mombasa Funk 74
    31. Kisumu Funk 76
    32. Disco Kills Funk 77
    33. Funky Vinyl 78

    CD
    01. MAKINI Sal Davies 1969
    02. EVERYBODY’S GROOVE Ashantis 1975
    03. I WANNA DO MY THING Air Fiesta Matata 1972
    04. FROG SOUL Faisal Brown & The Hodi Boys 1971
    05. SAVAGED Black Savage 1977
    06. DUNIA INA MAMBO The Mighty Cavaliers 1976
    07. YOU CAN DO IT Slim Ali & The Hodi Boys 1977
    08. LET’S STAY TOGETHER Ashantis 1975
    09. WHAT’S THAT SOUND Steele Beauttah 1975
    10. MAMBO BADO The Mighty Cavaliers 1980
    11. I DON’T KNOW WHAT TO DO Black Savage 1977
    12. GIMME SOMETHING LOVE Slim Ali & The Hodi Boys 1977
    13. AFRICAN STOMP Air Fiesta Matata 1976
    14. FEVER Ismael Jingo 1974
    15. HIGHER Kelly Brown 1980

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing Kenya’s Songs of Protest. Music as a Force for Change in Kenya: 1963-2013.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2013. 105 p. CD & DVD
    ISBN N/A – EAN code 6-164001-943125

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements & Credits 8
    Foreword 9

    Chapter 1
    Colonialism & The Freedom Struggle 11
    Chapter 2
    Independence & Self Rule 15
    Chapter 3
    The Kenyatta Era 19
    Chapter 4
    The Nyayo Era 25
    Chapter 5
    Political Assassinations 37
    Chapter 6
    The End of The Road 47
    Chapter 7
    The Post Nyayo Era 57
    Chapter 8
    Crucible of Protest 67
    Chapter 9
    From Kenyatta to Kenyatta 79
    Chapter 10
    Protest In Pictures 83
    Chapter 11
    CD Compilation 97

    CD

    01. Unbwogable Gidigidi Majimaji (Unbwogble, 2005)
    02. GANGSTERS IN PARLIAMENT
           Jabali Afrika (Rebellion 1963 To The Future. 2012)
    03. NLCHI YA KITU KIDOGO Eric Wainaina (Sawa Sawa, 2001)
    04. LUNCH TIME Nairobi City Ensemble (KaBoum Boum, 2002)
    05. NINDARONA NJIRA Zingamoto Afrika 
          (Spotlight On Kenyan Music Vol 2, 2006)
    06. BWANA SERIKALI Necessary Noize ft. Bryo & Jerry Doobie 
          (Neccessary Noize, 2000)
    07. BAHASHA YA OCAMPO Juliani (Pulpit Kwa Street, 2011)
    08. NAKUJA Sauti (Spotlight On Kenyan Music Vol 2, 2006)
    09. TEACHINGS Makadem (Teachings, 2005)
    10. RAIS WANGU Winyo (Rais Wangu, 2012)
    11. TAFSIRI HII Kalamashaka (Tafsiri Hii, 1997)
    12. MAPAMBANO Makadem (Mapambano, 2007)
    13. URITHI Iddi Achieng’ (Weapon Of Mass Reconciliation, 2012)-
    14. UTAWALA Juliani (Utawala, 2013)
    15. WEKATAYA Makadem (Weka Taya, 2007)
    16. PEOPLE’S VOICE Jabali Afrika (Mayosi, 2006)

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Shades of Benga – The Story of Popular Music in Kenya: 1946 – 2016.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2017. xxi & 649 p.
    ISBN 978-9966-094-60-5

    CONTENTS

    The Forgotten Legends of Nairobi’s River Road… iii
    Acknowledgements xv
    Preface xvii

    01 The Pioneers 1
    World War II – The African Entertainment Unit 3
    Peter Colmore – The African Band 7
    Mwenda & Masengo – The Congo Connection 11
    Equator Sound – Malaika, The Controversy 15
    Pioneer Labels & Studios 21
    Roving Bands 27
    Chapter 01 Profiles 31
    Paul Mwachupa 33
    Fundi Konde 35
    Fadhili William 37
    Ben Nicholas 39
    Ben Blastus O’Bulawayo 41
    George Mukabi 43
    Daudi Kabaka 47
    Peter Akwabi 49
    Isaya Mwinamo 51
    Robbie Armstrong 53
    The Ashantis 55
    Sam Kahiga 59

    02 Benga 61
    Setting the Scene 63
    What Is Benga Music? 65
    Evolution & Adaptations 69
    Transition to Benga 73
    The Ogara Years 75
    Origins of the Word – Benga 79
    Producers – Band Masters & ‘Jazz Bands’ 83
    1970 to 1980 – The Golden Decade of Benga 91
    Beyond the Region – Benga Spreads its Wings 97
    Shapers of Benga 101
    Benga into the Future 117
    Chapter 02 Profiles 121
    John Ogara 123
    Ochieng’ Nelly Orwa 125
    David Amunga  127
    Manasseh ‘Diploma’ Omwoma 129
    Phares Oluoch Kanindo 131
    BA Kanyottu 133
    George Fombe ‘Yahoos’ 135
    George Ramogi 137
    DO Misiani 139
    Ochieng’ Nelly Mengo 141
    Collela Mazee 143
    Shem Tube & Abana Ba Nasery 145
    Kakai Kilonzo 147
    Joseph Kamaru 149
    DK Mwai 151
    Sukuma bin Ongaro 153
    Kipchamba arap Tapotuk 155
    Micah Maritim 157
    Kalenjin Sisters 159
    Princess Jully 161
    Okatch Biggy 163

    03 Rumba in Nairobi City 165
    The Golden Years 167
    Influences – Foreign Flavour 171
    The Starlight Club Resident Bands 183
    Multinational Record Labels 187
    End of an Era 191
    Chapter 03 Profiles 193
    Gabriel Omolo 195
    Baba Gaston 199
    Super Mazembe 201
    Orchestre Les Mangelepa 205
    Samba Mapangala & Orchestre Virunga 209
    Simba Wanyika 217
    Juma Toto 221
    Hodi Boys 223
    The Cavaliers 225
    John Nzenze 227
    Air Fiesta Matata 231
    Ochieng’ Kabaselleh 233
    Habel Kifoto & Maroon Commandos 237
    Moreno Batamba 241

    04 Ohangla 243
    The Origins of Ohangla 245
    Origins of the Name 247
    Contemporary Ohangla 251
    The Future of Ohangla 255

    05 Mwomboko 259
    Origins of Mwomboko 261
    Mwomboko Pioneers 265
    Chapter 05 Profiles 269
    Shinda Gikombe 271
    John Arthur 273
    Cyrus Wanganagu 275

    06 Akorino 277
    Present-Day Corinthians 279
    Divine Inspiration 283
    Popular Inspiration 285

    07 Taarab 287
    Swahili Taarab 289
    Arabic Taarab 293
    Indian Taarab 295
    Mombasa Taarab 301
    The Youth & Taarab 305

    08 Funk 309
    The Funky Seventies 311
    Funky Culture – Fashion & Boogies 315
    Funk on the Air 319
    Vibes from Mombasa 323
    Funk Bands & Fusion Experiments 327
    The Disco Ball Drops on Funk 335
    Chapter 08 Profiles 337
    Sal Davis 339
    Slim Ali 341
    Ishmael Jingo 343
    Faisal Brown 345
    Steele Beauttah 347
    Gordon Ominde 349
    Them Mushrooms 351
    Ayub Ogada 357
    Jimmy ‘St James’ Gicho 359

    09 Gospel 361
    What Defines Gospel Music in Kenya? 363
    Kwela & Foreign Influences 367
    The Era of Choirs 371
    Sing N’ Shine 373
    Gospel Evolution 379
    Gospel – Commerce vs Ministry 383
    Chapter 09 Profiles 389
    Kenneth Ombima Owuor 391
    Mary Atieno 393
    Japheth Kasanga 395

    10 Urban Expressions 399
    The Renaissance 401
    All that Jazz 405
    Afro Fusion 415
    The Spotlight on Kenyan Music Programme 423
    Tours & Festivals 431
    Fusion Movers & Shapers 437
    Chapter 10 Profiles 445
    Abbi 447
    Eric Wainaina 449
    Kidum 451
    Suzanna Owiyo 453
    Makadem 455
    Ogoya Nengo 457
    Sauti Sol 459
    Gargar 461
    Winyo 463

    11 Hip-Hop 465
    Hip-Hop – The Genesis 467
    Hip-Hop Made in Nairobi 477
    Hip-Hop Breeding Grounds 483
    Hip-Hop Platforms – TV, FM Radio & Club DJs 491
    Producers – Digital Era 497
    Rhymes & Cents – The Business of Hip-Hop 529
    Lyrical Beef – The Real vs Kapuka 535
    Hip-Hop into the Future 545
    Chapter 11 Profiles 551
    Fundi Frank 553
    Poxi Presha 555
    Kalamashaka 557
    Hardstone 559
    E-Sir 561

    12 Live Gigs 563
    On Stage – Shows & Venues 565

    13 Broadcasters 579
    Voices – Behind the Mic 581
    Chapter 13 Profiles 587
    Leonard Mambo Mbotela 589
    Job Isaac Mwamto 591
    Eddy Fondo 593
    Fred Obachi Machoka 595
    Sam Madoka 597
    Ike Mulembo 599
    Larry Wambua 601
    John Obong’o Jr 603
    Tony Msalame 605

    14 The Smithsonian Folklife Festival 607
    Kenya Mambo Pod 609

    Afterword 615
    Selected Bibliography 616
    Interviews 619
    Photographers & Picture Contributors 621
    Picture Index 624
    Index 627
    Editorial Team  643
    Ketebul Music  645

  • Owen, Caleb Edwin:
    It was Just for Fun: Taarab and the Construction of
    Community Identity in Two Kenyan Towns.

    B.A. University of Oregon (Eugene, Oreg.), 2010. vi & 101 p.

    CONTENTS

    Abstract iii
    Acknowledgements iv

    Chapter 1
    A Lamu Afternoon – Introduction 1
    Chapter 2
    “First for Leisure”:
    Situating Taarab in a Local Context 22
    Chapter 3
    “Awakening the People”:
    Swahili Poems and the Construction of a Community Ethic 44
    Chapter 4
    “They Just Want to Play” –
    Decline of Taarab and the Music in Contemporary Times 66
    Chapter 5
    Conclusion 87

    Appendix A
    Photos 94
    Bibliography 97

  • Wallis, Roger & Krister Malm:
    Big Sounds from Small Peoples.
    The Music Industry in Small Countries.
    London: Constable, 1984. 419 p.
    Case study including Kenya
    ISBN 0-09-465300-3 (Hardback) 0-09-465360-7 (Paperback)

    See Main menu “Music industry – Books” for full Table of Contents

    KENYA INDEX

    Kenyan music, xii, xv, 30-33, 43, 60, 227, 298;
    benga beat, 93;
    broadcasting (VoK),
    25, 125, 145, 171, 205, 205, 234, 245, 250, 257-9, 263-4;
    CBS in, xiii, 82, 93-5, 96, 99, 108, 245;
    copyright,
    47, 145-6, 167, 171, 175, 176, 182-6, 203-4, 204, 205, 209;
    cultural dominance in, 298-9;
    EMI in, xiii, 92-3, 108; and external cultural forces, 65;
    government policy, 228, 223;
    international co-operation, 47, 48, 49;
    ‘Malaika’ case, 182-7 & n;
    manufacturing costs, 159;
    music education, 230;
    music in hotels, 62, 293;
    National Music Organization Treaty, 143-6;
    national pop-rock scene, 303, 306, 310;
    organization of musicians in, 290-91;
    phonogram industry, 24, 25, 113, 115, 117;
    Polygram in, 76, 77, 81, 93, 144-5, 151;
    popular music, 32-3, 302;
    Presidential National Music Commission, 65;
    profile of change (appendix), 350-56;
    traditional music, 31-2,43
    Kenya National Cultural Council, 228

  • Wetaba, Aggrey Nganyi R.:
    Kenyan Hip-Hop as a Site of Negotiating Urban Youth Identities in Nairobi.
    Ph.D. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität (Mainz). Göttingen: Sierke Verlag,  2009. 450 p.
    ISBN 978-3-86844-188-8

    CONTENTS

    List of Figures vii
    Acknowledgements ix
    Abstract xi
    List of Abbreviations xii

    Background  1

    Chapter One
    Research Methodology 27
    1.1 Introduction 27
    1.1.1 Pilot Study 28
    1.1.2 Legal Requirement and Research Funding 29
    1.1.3 Locale of the Study 29
    1.1.4 Nairobi as Preferred Research Site 3o
    1.1.5 Taking off 33
    1.1.6 Field Techniques 34
    1.1.7 Members of the Audience as Respondents 40
    1.1.8 Native Researcher and Prior Knowledge 41
    1.1.9 Approaches to Analysis and Interpretation of Findings 43
    1.1.10 Literature Review 48
    1.1.11 Philosophical and Methodological Framework 73
    1.1.12 Theoretical Framework 77
     
    Chapter Two
    Negotiating Kenyan Youth; Hip-Hop Artists in Perspective 85
    2.1 Introduction 85
    2.2 Youth and Violence 99
    2.3 Kenyan Youth and Hip-Hop 102
    2.4 Self Revelations 103
    2.5 Kenyan Urban Space as Motivation for Youth Culture and
           Hip-Hop 105
    2.6 Eating Spots and Leisure Practices 113
    2.7 Youth and Matatu 114
    2.8 Conclusion 116

    Chapter Three
    Urban Space and Hip-Hop in Kenya 121
    3.1 The Urban as a Site for this Study 121
    3.2 Music and Leisure in the Urban Nairobi 130
    3.3 Sheng Language and Construction of Identity 
          in Kenyan Hip-Hop 140

    Chapter Four
    The Making of Kenyan Hip-Hop 157
    4.0 Meet Kenyan Artists 157
    4.1 Brief History of Kenyan Hip-Hop 162
    4.2 Kenyan Hip-Hop 165
    4.3 Kenyan Hip-Hop Music Production and Distribution 212

    Chapter Five
    Themes in Kenyan Hip-Hop 259
    5.1 Introduction 259
    5.2 The Socio-Political in Kenyan Hip-Hop: 
          The Example of ‘Unbwogable’ 289
    5.3 Gospel Hip-Hop; Rapping in the Church 304
    5.4 HIV/AIDS: Manyake! and Kenyan Hip-Hop Intervention 315
    5.5 Hip-Hop Battle “Mchongoano” 338
    5.6 Economy and Class Structure Struggles 342
    5.7 Sponsorship of Hip-Hop in Kenya 344

    Chapter Six
    Kenyan Hip-Hop; Assessing its Impact 355
    6.1 Introduction 355
    6.1.1 Quest for a Kenyan Musical Identity 357
    6.1.2 Names as Form of Expression in Kenyan Hip-Hop 36o
    6.1.3 Bidii Yangu and Referents of Economic Empowerment 364
    6.1.4 Challenging and Expanding Religious Music Taste 
             and space 367
    6.1.5 Participative Audience; Quest for Consent 370
    6.1.6 Edutainment in Kenyan Hip-Hop 371
    6.1.7 Ethnic Identity Formations 373
    6.1.8 Negotiating Culture and Music Identity in Kenya 374
    6.1.9 Kenyan Hip-Hop Movement; Negotiation from
              the Periphery 375
    6.1.10 Public Image and Youth 377
    6.1.11 Socio-political Expression and Negotiation in
               Kenyan Hip-Hop 380
    6.1.12 Costumes and Dress in Kenyan Hip-Hop 384
    6.1.13 Expression in Music and the Search for Identity 387
    6.1.14 Social Discourse 389
    6.1.15 Sense of Community and Solidarity 391
    6.1.16 Media coverage and Kenyan Hip-Hop 394

    Summary, Conclusion, Remarks and Recommendations 396

    Bibliography 407
    Discography 426
    Filmography 428
    Appendices 429

    Curriculum Vitae 449
    Declaration 450

  • Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
    The Street Is My Pulpit. Hip Hop and Christianity in Kenya.
    Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2016, 206 p.
    ISBN 978-0-252-04006-1 (cloth) 978-0-252-08155-2 (pbk) 978-0-252-09826-0 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Table of Contents vii
    List of Illustrations ix
    Foreword by Juliani (Julius Owino) xi

    Preface xiii
    Acknowledgments xix

    1. Intersections, Overlaps, and Collaborations 1
    2. Cultural Preferences, Christianity, and the Street 23
    3. Hip Hop’s Recasting of Christianity and Gospel Music in Kenya 46
    4. Kama Si Sisi Nani? Juliani’s Gospel of Self-Empowerment 49
    5. Media and Contested Christian Identities 95
    6. Juliani: Lyrical Genius with a Socially Conscious Message 119
    Conclusion: Parallel but Intersecting Paths 141

    Appendix: Shops Selling Juliani’s Exponential Potential 151

    Notes 153
    Glossary 157
    Discography 159
    Bibliography 161
    Index 177

  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

    CONTENTS

    Replace “English template – click Clone & Edit” (the popup name) with the common name for the Word contents file and the jpg file  (e.g. “mortaigne1997”)

    Insert name of author, title and place of publication in the text box.
    Text colour red. Title in bold. ISBN number in black and 10 px.

    Right side column:
    Button Text: Contents
    Button Title: Click here

    Class to Execute Popup: Insert “Shortcode” popuppress id number

    Picture:
    Click on picture – and then click on “Remove”
    Place curser in front of “CONTENTS”

    Click on “Add Media” and select jpg file. Insert.
    Align: Left
    Image CSS class: map-mobile
    Image Margins: Set “Bottom” value i.e. 500
    Insert text from content file. Edit text and save. 

    Adjust  Bottom value if necessary and Publish pup-up
    Copy “Shortcode” including square brackets e.g. Índice and inset and replace it for “Contents” in the page with book list file.

  • Ministry of State for National Heritage and Culture:
    Music Policy.
    [Nairobi]: June 2012. 41 p.

    CONTENTS

    Chapter 1
    Introduction
    1.1 Background and context 4
    1.2 Definition of music 6
    1.3 Rationale for the policy 6
    1.4 Vision 7
    1.5 Mission 7
    1.6 Objectives of the policy 7

    Chapter 2
    The music industry
    2.1 The situation analysis 9
    2.2 Music education and training 12
    2.3 Documentation and archiving 15
    2.4 Media and advertising 17
    2.5 The music and national identity 18
    2.6 Music and tourism 21
    2.7 Music performance 23
    2.8 National development agenda 24
    2.9 Music and technology 27

    Chapter 3
    Rights associated with music and artists
    3.1 Copyright and intellectual property rights 30
    3.2 Enforcement of the bill of rights 32

    Chapter 4
    Funding
    4.1 Investing in music and musicians 35
    4.2 Financial management 37

    Chapter 5
    Legal and institutional framework
    5.1 Registration and affiliation of music organisations 38
    5.2 Nationai music board 39

    Chapter 6
    Implementation plan 40

    Appendices 41

    List of accronyms

  • Wallis, Roger & Krister Malm:
    Big Sounds from Small Peoples.
    The Music Industry in Small Countries.
    London: Constable, 1984. 419 p.
    Case study including Kenya
    ISBN 0-09-465300-3 (Hardback) 0-09-465360-7 (Paperback)

    See Main menu “Music industry – Books” for full Table of Contents

    KENYA INDEX

    Kenyan music, xii, xv, 30-33, 43, 60, 227, 298;
    benga beat, 93;
    broadcasting (VoK),
    25, 125, 145, 171, 205, 205, 234, 245, 250, 257-9, 263-4;
    CBS in, xiii, 82, 93-5, 96, 99, 108, 245;
    copyright,
    47, 145-6, 167, 171, 175, 176, 182-6, 203-4, 204, 205, 209;
    cultural dominance in, 298-9;
    EMI in, xiii, 92-3, 108; and external cultural forces, 65;
    government policy, 228, 223;
    international co-operation, 47, 48, 49;
    ‘Malaika’ case, 182-7 & n;
    manufacturing costs, 159;
    music education, 230;
    music in hotels, 62, 293;
    National Music Organization Treaty, 143-6;
    national pop-rock scene, 303, 306, 310;
    organization of musicians in, 290-91;
    phonogram industry, 24, 25, 113, 115, 117;
    Polygram in, 76, 77, 81, 93, 144-5, 151;
    popular music, 32-3, 302;
    Presidential National Music Commission, 65;
    profile of change (appendix), 350-56;
    traditional music, 31-2,43
    Kenya National Cultural Council, 228

  • Owen, Caleb Edwin:
    It was Just for Fun: Taarab and the Construction of
    Community Identity in Two Kenyan Towns.

    B.A. University of Oregon (Eugene, Oreg.), 2010. vi & 101 p.

    CONTENTS

    Abstract iii
    Acknowledgements iv

    Chapter 1
    A Lamu Afternoon – Introduction 1
    Chapter 2
    “First for Leisure”:
    Situating Taarab in a Local Context 22
    Chapter 3
    “Awakening the People”:
    Swahili Poems and the Construction of a Community Ethic 44
    Chapter 4
    “They Just Want to Play” –
    Decline of Taarab and the Music in Contemporary Times 66
    Chapter 5
    Conclusion 87

    Appendix A
    Photos 94
    Bibliography 97

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Shades of Benga – The Story of Popular Music in Kenya: 1946 – 2016.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2017. xxi & 649 p.
    ISBN 978-9966-094-60-5

    CONTENTS

    The Forgotten Legends of Nairobi’s River Road… iii
    Acknowledgements xv
    Preface xvii

    01 The Pioneers 1
    World War II – The African Entertainment Unit 3
    Peter Colmore – The African Band 7
    Mwenda & Masengo – The Congo Connection 11
    Equator Sound – Malaika, The Controversy 15
    Pioneer Labels & Studios 21
    Roving Bands 27
    Chapter 01 Profiles 31
    Paul Mwachupa 33
    Fundi Konde 35
    Fadhili William 37
    Ben Nicholas 39
    Ben Blastus O’Bulawayo 41
    George Mukabi 43
    Daudi Kabaka 47
    Peter Akwabi 49
    Isaya Mwinamo 51
    Robbie Armstrong 53
    The Ashantis 55
    Sam Kahiga 59

    02 Benga 61
    Setting the Scene 63
    What Is Benga Music? 65
    Evolution & Adaptations 69
    Transition to Benga 73
    The Ogara Years 75
    Origins of the Word – Benga 79
    Producers – Band Masters & ‘Jazz Bands’ 83
    1970 to 1980 – The Golden Decade of Benga 91
    Beyond the Region – Benga Spreads its Wings 97
    Shapers of Benga 101
    Benga into the Future 117
    Chapter 02 Profiles 121
    John Ogara 123
    Ochieng’ Nelly Orwa 125
    David Amunga  127
    Manasseh ‘Diploma’ Omwoma 129
    Phares Oluoch Kanindo 131
    BA Kanyottu 133
    George Fombe ‘Yahoos’ 135
    George Ramogi 137
    DO Misiani 139
    Ochieng’ Nelly Mengo 141
    Collela Mazee 143
    Shem Tube & Abana Ba Nasery 145
    Kakai Kilonzo 147
    Joseph Kamaru 149
    DK Mwai 151
    Sukuma bin Ongaro 153
    Kipchamba arap Tapotuk 155
    Micah Maritim 157
    Kalenjin Sisters 159
    Princess Jully 161
    Okatch Biggy 163

    03 Rumba in Nairobi City 165
    The Golden Years 167
    Influences – Foreign Flavour 171
    The Starlight Club Resident Bands 183
    Multinational Record Labels 187
    End of an Era 191
    Chapter 03 Profiles 193
    Gabriel Omolo 195
    Baba Gaston 199
    Super Mazembe 201
    Orchestre Les Mangelepa 205
    Samba Mapangala & Orchestre Virunga 209
    Simba Wanyika 217
    Juma Toto 221
    Hodi Boys 223
    The Cavaliers 225
    John Nzenze 227
    Air Fiesta Matata 231
    Ochieng’ Kabaselleh 233
    Habel Kifoto & Maroon Commandos 237
    Moreno Batamba 241

    04 Ohangla 243
    The Origins of Ohangla 245
    Origins of the Name 247
    Contemporary Ohangla 251
    The Future of Ohangla 255

    05 Mwomboko 259
    Origins of Mwomboko 261
    Mwomboko Pioneers 265
    Chapter 05 Profiles 269
    Shinda Gikombe 271
    John Arthur 273
    Cyrus Wanganagu 275

    06 Akorino 277
    Present-Day Corinthians 279
    Divine Inspiration 283
    Popular Inspiration 285

    07 Taarab 287
    Swahili Taarab 289
    Arabic Taarab 293
    Indian Taarab 295
    Mombasa Taarab 301
    The Youth & Taarab 305

    08 Funk 309
    The Funky Seventies 311
    Funky Culture – Fashion & Boogies 315
    Funk on the Air 319
    Vibes from Mombasa 323
    Funk Bands & Fusion Experiments 327
    The Disco Ball Drops on Funk 335
    Chapter 08 Profiles 337
    Sal Davis 339
    Slim Ali 341
    Ishmael Jingo 343
    Faisal Brown 345
    Steele Beauttah 347
    Gordon Ominde 349
    Them Mushrooms 351
    Ayub Ogada 357
    Jimmy ‘St James’ Gicho 359

    09 Gospel 361
    What Defines Gospel Music in Kenya? 363
    Kwela & Foreign Influences 367
    The Era of Choirs 371
    Sing N’ Shine 373
    Gospel Evolution 379
    Gospel – Commerce vs Ministry 383
    Chapter 09 Profiles 389
    Kenneth Ombima Owuor 391
    Mary Atieno 393
    Japheth Kasanga 395

    10 Urban Expressions 399
    The Renaissance 401
    All that Jazz 405
    Afro Fusion 415
    The Spotlight on Kenyan Music Programme 423
    Tours & Festivals 431
    Fusion Movers & Shapers 437
    Chapter 10 Profiles 445
    Abbi 447
    Eric Wainaina 449
    Kidum 451
    Suzanna Owiyo 453
    Makadem 455
    Ogoya Nengo 457
    Sauti Sol 459
    Gargar 461
    Winyo 463

    11 Hip-Hop 465
    Hip-Hop – The Genesis 467
    Hip-Hop Made in Nairobi 477
    Hip-Hop Breeding Grounds 483
    Hip-Hop Platforms – TV, FM Radio & Club DJs 491
    Producers – Digital Era 497
    Rhymes & Cents – The Business of Hip-Hop 529
    Lyrical Beef – The Real vs Kapuka 535
    Hip-Hop into the Future 545
    Chapter 11 Profiles 551
    Fundi Frank 553
    Poxi Presha 555
    Kalamashaka 557
    Hardstone 559
    E-Sir 561

    12 Live Gigs 563
    On Stage – Shows & Venues 565

    13 Broadcasters 579
    Voices – Behind the Mic 581
    Chapter 13 Profiles 587
    Leonard Mambo Mbotela 589
    Job Isaac Mwamto 591
    Eddy Fondo 593
    Fred Obachi Machoka 595
    Sam Madoka 597
    Ike Mulembo 599
    Larry Wambua 601
    John Obong’o Jr 603
    Tony Msalame 605

    14 The Smithsonian Folklife Festival 607
    Kenya Mambo Pod 609

    Afterword 615
    Selected Bibliography 616
    Interviews 619
    Photographers & Picture Contributors 621
    Picture Index 624
    Index 627
    Editorial Team  643
    Ketebul Music  645

  • Milu, Esther:
    “Hatucheki Na Watu”: Kenyan Hip-Hop Artists’ Theories of Multilingualism, Identity and Decoloniality.
    Ph.D. Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.), 2016, xii & 195 p.

    CONTENTS

    List of tables x
    List of figures xi

    Introduction
    Entering the rhetoric and composition language wars 1

    Chapter 1
    History of hip-hop in Kenya:
    Socio-economic, political and sociolinguistic context
    18
    Socio-economic and political context 19
    Hip-hop routes to Africa 23
    Early hip-hop in Kenya: From the suburbs to the inner city 27
    Mapping the Nairobi urban space 28
    The pioneers of Kenyan hip-hop 30
    Kenyan hip-hop and language use: In the beginnings 32
    Kenyan media and its role in spreading of hip-hop culture
    in early 1990s 36

    Chapter 2
    Methods and methodology 39
    In-depth phenomenological interviewing 40
    Interview one: Focused life history 41
    Interview two: The details of experience 42
    Interview three: Reflection on the meaning 43
    Building a trans lingual analytical framework 44

    Chapter 3
    Rappin like a Mkenya:
    Translingualism as a construction of new ethnicities
    47
    Resisting Ethnic Identification 50
    Jua Cali’s Story: Neither a Mtaita nor a Mluhya 53
    Abbas Kubaff’s Story: A Kenyan but mostly a Pan-African 63
    Nazizi Hirji’s story:
    A combination of six different races and things 68
    Conclusion 74

    Chapter 4
    “Wakilisha mtaani”: Trans lingualism as a performance
    of street-conscious identity
    76
    Language and construction of a street- conscious
    identity in hip-hop 78
    But, can Nazizi wakilisha the Kenyan mtaa, streets? 85
       Matatu ride as an everyday street practice 88
       Storytelling as an everyday street practice 98
       Ways of dressing as an everyday street practice .102
    Conclusion 108

    Chapter 5
    “Kuna Sheng”: Trans lingualism as language activism 109
    “Kuna Sheng”: A language activism song 111
    Promoting critical language awareness in the Kenyan media 114
    Practicing and advocating for language preservation 127
    Impact of Jua Cali’s language activism work: Conclusion 137

    Chapter 6
    “Tugenge yajayo”: Discussion of findings and implications 140
    Multilingual theories as negotiated 140
    Trans lingual practice in Kenya is tied to decolonization 146
    Linguistic culture(s) shapes a person’s trans lingual practices 150
    Is trans lingualism enough? 152

    Appendices 155
    Appendix A: My research story 156
    Appendix B: Interview protocol 188

    References 190

  • Morin, Matthew McNamara:
    Composing Civil Society: Ethnographic Contingency, NGO Culture, and Music Production in Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ph.D. Florida State University (Tallahassee, Fla.), 2012. xxi & 329 p.

    CONTENTS

    List of Figures xiii
    List of Musical Examples xvii
    Abstract xx

    1. Introduction: Composing civil society 1
    1.1 Purpose and Argument 1
    1.2 Theory: Positioning a theory of ethnographic contingency 7
    1.3 Research methodology: A contingent ethnographic method 13
    1.4 Literature Review 21
    1.5 Background 33
    1.6 Chapter outline: A contingently structured text 43

    Part 1
    2. NGO development, Kenyan music culture, and global NGO music industry initiatives 47
    2.1 Introduction 47
    2.2 NGO Culture Development 49
    2.3 NGO music culture contexts 57
       2.3.1 The international popular music industry and 
                 the spread of NGOs into Africa 57
       2.3.2 Historical contexts of NGO-oriented music culture 
                 in East Africa 59
       2.3.3 Civil Society-oriented music organizing in East Africa 60
       2.3.4 Civil society ethos in East African music performance 62
       2.3.5 Music as protest 66
    2.4 Conclusion 67

    3. Civil society discourse formations:
    Mapping Nairobi’s NGO music culture-scape
    69
    3.1 Introduction 69
    3.2 Locating NGO music culture 70
    3.3 Classificatory criteria 73
    3.4 International organizations 79
    3.5 Kenyan-based organizations 89
    3.6 Conclusion 105

    4. Economies of rememberance: NGO initiatives for the relocalization of East African popular music 106
    4.1 Introduction 107
    4.2 Decline: Destabilization of the mainstream Kenyan popular 
          music industry 108
    4.3 Adapt: Strategies of music production and NGO economy 110
    4.4 Rise: NGO music culture networks 116
    4.5 Remembrance: Advocacy for past and present local 
          music culture 118
    4.6 Conclusion 121

    Part 2
    5. Interlude:
    Situating Part 2, a monograph of Ketebul Music
    124
    5.1 Introduction 124
    5.2 Introducing a fieldwork-based study of Ketebul Music 125
    5.3 Ketebul Music, a brief overview 127
    5.4 Ketebul Music, afro-fusion, world music discourses, and 
          musicological critique 135
    5.5 Conclusion 138

    6. Contingencies of life experience in memory:
    Reflections of founder and executive director, Tabu Osusa 139
    6.0 Conceptual signpost 139
    6.1 Introduction 139
    6.2 Individual as agent of cultural change 141
       6.2.1 Childhood and polycultural influence 142
       6.2.2 Early migrations:
                 Preparing a life of continual reinvention and relocation 143
       6.2.3 Individualism and agency: 
                Musical protests at the seminary 145
       6.2.4 Resilience and resolution 146
       6.2.5 Musical apprenticeship: Journey to Kinshasa 149
       6.2.6 The Virunga years:
                 Recollections of Tabu Osusa and Samba Mapangala 151
       6.2.7 Music and politics 160
       6.2.8 The immigrant experience: 
                 Life in the United Kingdom and returning to Kenya 161
       6.2.9 Seeds of the afro-fusion movement: 
                 Formation of Nairobi City Ensemble 162
       6.2.10 HIV/AIDS and a lost generation 164
       6.2.11 Music studio as culture weapon:
                  The formation of Ketebul Productions 166
       6.2.12 Commercial to nonprofit: Ketebul Music turns NGO 168
    6.3 Conclusion 169

    7. Social contingencies of organizational identity:
    The music of Makadem and Olith Ratego
    170
    7.0 Conceptual signpost 170
    7.1 Introduction 171
    7.2 Constructing afro-fusion: The first Ketebul Music artists 172
    7.3 Makadem 174
    7.4 Olith Ratego 193
     7.5 Conclusion 205

    8. Social politics of institutional partnering:
    The spotlight on Kenyan music initiative
    207
    8.0 Conceptual signpost 207
    8.1 Introduction 207
    8.2 The development of the spotlight on Kenyan music initiative 208
    8.3 Socio-institutional convergences of genre construction 209
    8.4 Marketing cross-cultural: Volumes one and two 211
    8.5 Bridging divides and reconciliation:
          Volumes three, four, and five 213
    8.6 Social politics and institutional partnerships 216
       8.6.1 Alliance Française 216
       8.6.2 Alliance Française, Kenya 217
       8.6.3 Ketebul Music 221
       8.6.4 Kenyan department of culture 226
       8.6.5 Sponsors and marketing: 
                The French embassy and Total Oil 228
       8.6.6 The 9th European Development Fund grant 232
    8.7 Conclusion 238

    9. Studio ethnography:
    The “sound” of Ketebul producer, Jesse Bukindu
    240
    9.0 Conceptual signpost 240
    9.1 Introduction 240
    9.1.1 Studio ethnography 241
    9.2 The creation of Gargar and Somali identity in Kenya 243
    9.3 The production of Garissa Express (2011) 246
    9.4 Digital production and (ethno)musicological representation 248
       9.4.1 Vocal segmentation 250
       9.4.2 Instrumental infusion 252
       9.4.3 Signifying foreign locals and parallel otherness 257
       9.4.4 Fusing “traditional” and “modern” 258
       9.4.5 Post-production 259
    9.5 Conclusion 261

    10. Documentary film production at Ketebul Music:
    Molding postcolonial historical discourse 262
    10.0 Conceptual Signpost 262
    10.1 Introduction 262
       10.1.1 Synopsis of retracing the benga rhythm (2008) 264
       10.1.2 Synopsis of retracing Kikuyu popular music (2010) 265
    10.2 Social processes of historical documentary production 266
       10.2.1 Funding 266
       10.2.2 Forging lineages of african discourse 267
       10.2.3 Media production and self-directed mentorship 270
       10.2.4 Research and information gathering 271
       10.2.5 Post-research 275
    10.3 From process to product: Textual analyses of retracing 
             the benga rhythm (2008) and retracing Kikuyu popular
             music (2010) 278
       10.3.1 Subversion of popular discourse in retracing
                  the benga rhythm (2008) 279
       10.3.2 Polyvocality in retracing the benga rhythm (2008) 281
       10.3.3 Reconciliation and cultural hybridization in retracing
                  Kikuyu popular music (2010) 284
    10.4 Conclusion 287

    11. Conclusion:
    Locating meaning in contingent realms of global culture
    289
    11.1 Introduction 289
    11.2 Balancing broad and specific, macro and micro, 
            global and local 290
    11.3 Deconstructing representation 291
    11.4 A Contingency-induced pragmatically reflexive statement 292

    Appendices 296
    A. Extended transcriptions of analyzed recordings 296
    B. Human subjects approval 303
    C. 9th European Development Fund 2010 Vital Voices And Culture:
         Increasing People’s Participation in Good Governance and
         Development call for proposals (CFP) 304
    D. Oral sources 309

    References 312

    Biographical sketch 330

  • King’ei, Geoffrey Kitula:
    Language, Culture and Communication.
    The Role of Swahili Taarab Songs in Kenya, 1963-1990.
    Ph.D. Howard University (Washington, D.C.), 1992. vii & 240 p.

    CONTENTS

    Cover page i
    Dissertation committee ii
    Dedication iii
    Acknowledgments iv
    Abstract v
    Table of contents vi

    Chapter 1
    Introduction
    1.1 The Country of Research, Kenya 1
       1.1.1 Climate and Geography 1
       1.1.2 History and Politics 2
       1.1.3 Kenya’s Cultural Diversity 3
       1.1.4 The Swahili Community 6
    1.2 The City of Mombasa 7
    1.3 The Place of Oral Tradition in Kenya’s Culture 9
    1.4 Purpose and Objectives 13
    1.5 Nature of the Problem 13
    1.6 Research Questions 14
    1.7 Hypothesis 14
    1.8 Theoretical Framework 15
    1.9 Methodology 19
    1.10 Anticipated Contribution of the Study 21
    1.11 Review of Literature 23
    1.12 Scope and Limitations 27
    1.13 Definition of Terms 29
    Endnotes 30

    Chapter 2
    Origin and Development of East African Swahili Taarab
    2.1 Introduction 34
    2.2 Historical Background 34
    2.3 Performance of Swahili Taarab 36
    2.4 Contemporary Situation 44
    Endnotes 50

    Chapter 3
    Style and Language in Swahili Taarab
    3.1 Introduction 52
    3.2 Problems ofMeaning in Swahili Taarab 53
    3.3 Style and Fonn in Swahili Taarab Songs 59
    3.4 Grammar and Diction in Taarab Songs 75
    3.5 Content and Methods of Delivery 81
    Endnotes 100

    Chapter 4
    Dominant Political Themes in Taarab
    4: 1 Introduction 102
    4.2 The artist and the Political Environment 104
    4.3 The Question of Commitment 106
    4.4 Politics in Swahili Taarab Songs 109
    Endnotes 130

    Chapter 5
    Sociocultural Themes in Swahili Taarab
    5.1 Introduction 131
    5.2 Theme of Love and Romance 131
    5.3 Didactic Themes 139
    5.4 Religious Themes 145
    5.5 Current Issues and Humor 149
    Endnotes 158

    Chapter 6
    Images of Women in Swahili Taarab
    6.1 Introduction 159
    6.2 Swahili Female Taarab Artists 180
    6.3 Summary and Implications 183
    6.4 Recommendations 187
    Endnotes 189

    Bibliography 192

    Appendix A 199
    Appendix B 200
    Appendix C 215
    Appendix D 223
    Appendix E 228
    Appendix F 232

  • Barkley, Divinity LaShelle:
    Kaya hip-hop in coastal Kenya: The urban poetry of Ukoo Flani.
    University of Southern California (Los Angeles).
    Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection. Paper 125, 2007. 46 p.

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements 3
    Abstract 4

    Introduction 5
       Hip-Hop & Kenyan Youth Culture
       Research Problem
       Status of Hip-Hop in Kenya
       Hypotheses
    The Setting 9
    Methodology: Data Collection 10
    Biases and Assumptions 13
    Discussion & Analysis 14
       Ukoo Flani ni nini?
       Kaya Hip-Hop
       Traditional Role of Music in African Culture
       Genesis of Rap/Hip-hop in American Ghettoes
       The Ties That Bind
       Kenyan Radio
       The Maskani
       Ghetto Life
       Will the real Ukoo Flani please stand up?
       Urban Poetry: Analyzing Ukoo Flani’s Lyrics
    Conclusion 33
       Conclusion Part I: The Future of Ukoo Flani
       Conclusion Part II: Hypotheses Results
       Conclusion Part III: Recommendations for Future SIT Students

    Bibliography 43

    Interview/Meeting Schedule 45
    ISP Review Sheet 46

  • Johnson, John William:
    ‘Heelloy’. Modern Poetry and Songs of the Somalis.
    London: HAAN Publishing, 1998. xxiii & 241 p.
    ISBN 978-1-874-20981-2

    CONTENTS

    Foreword to the first edition by B. W. Andrzejewski ix
    Foreword to the 1996 edition by Abdilahi Qarshi xi
    Preface to the first edition xv
    Preface to the 1996 edition xxiii

    1. Introduction
    The social context 1
    The Nature of Traditional Pastoralist Poetry 12
    The Historical Development of Modern Oral Poetry 17

    2. The Family of Miniature Genres
    The Nature of the Family of Miniature Genres 27
    The Poetry of the Miniature Family 32

    3. The emergence of the Belwo
    The Historical Background 49
    The Belwo is Born 53
    The Poetry of the Belwo 59

    4. The Heello: Period One
    The Metamorphosis: Belwo to Heello A 75
    The Modem Poem: Heello A to Heello B 82

    5. The Heello: Period Two
    The Historical Background 95
    The Poetry of the Second Period 103

    6. The Heello: Period Three
    The Historical Background 117
    The Poetry of the Third Period 146

    7. Characteristics of the Heello: All Periods
    Themes Common to All Periods 175
    Structural Characteristics and
    Development Common to All Periods 190
    The Impact of Media on Modern Poetry 208

    8. Conclusion
    The Inheritance of the Heello 215
    Forces Behind the Success and Development of Modern Poetry 216

  • Nyairo, Joyce Alice Wambũi:
    “Reading the Referents”. (INTER) Textuality in Contemporary Kenyan Popular Music.
    Ph.D. University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg), 2004. xxix & 283 p.

    CONTENTS

    Declaration
    Abstract
    Dedication
    Acknowledgements
    Abbreviations

    Part 1
    Introduction xi
           
    Chapter One
    ‘Poverty, piracy, poor facilities and government indifference’:
    the political economy of the Kenyan Music industry 1
    1.1 The Production of culture 2
       1.1.1 The example of ‘Unbwogable’ 4
    1.2 Then and now: A profile of Kenya’s music industry 10
        1.2.1 Of media hype and the millennium boom 14
    1.3 Piracy 20
        1.3.1 Polic(y)ing the industry 26
    1.4 The markets 30
    1.5 Conclusion 36

    Part 2

    Chapter Two
    The In(ter)vention of names 39
    2.1 Author(is)ing authority 41
    2.2 In Search of the authentic 52
    2.3 Discourses from afar 60
    2.3.1 The middle ground 68
    2.4 The power of the nickname 69
    2.5 ‘My signifier is more native [Kenyan] than yours’ 72

    Chapter Three
    Zilizopendwa: Between the romantic and the discordant –
    cover versions, remix and sampling in the (re)membering of Kenya 79
    3.1 Popular music as memory 81
    3.2 Zilizopendwa as cover versions 86
        3.2.1 Modernising the folksongs 90
    3.3 Remix: Irony and disjuncture 98
    3.4 Remix as continuity 105
    3.5 Samples of the past 113
    3.6 Conclusion 122
     
    Chapter Four
    (Re)Figuring the city: The mapping of places and people 125
    4.1 Theorising space 126
    4.2 Nairobi: ‘Green city in the sun’ 130
    4.3 Walking in the margins vs. walking in the city 140
        4.3.1 Of local Mona Lisas 144
        4.3.2 Thugs and conmen 147
    4.4 Conclusion 152

    Chapter Five
    Kenyan hip hop: Of global networks and the circulation
    of local soundtracks
    157
    5.1 ‘Bridges of Sound’: More than global, less than local 159
    5.2 ‘Uhiki’ and the Legacy of ‘Put up Your Hands and 
           You Scream’ 164
        5.2.1 Matatus: Soundtracks and trendsetters 171
        5.2.2 ‘Ting Badi Malo’ and the further domestication 
                  of hip hop 176
    5.3 ‘Ukilya Moko’: Gospel goes hip hop 183
    5.4 Conclusion 189

    Chapter Six
    ‘Ritwa Riaku’ and ‘Unbwogable’: National Longing and the antinomies of the postcolonial nation 193
    6.1 Reading postcolonial politics 194
    6.2 Corruption and ethnicity in Sawa Sawa 203
        6.2.1 ‘Daima’: Between cycles of betrayal and hope 217
    6.3 Transforming ethnic discourse into national desire 224
        6.3.1 Rewriting national history 227
    6.4 Conclusion 235

    Conclusion 240

    Works cited 254
    Selected discography 270

    Appendix     
    i) Interviews 272
    ii) Web discourse 273
    iii) Kalapapla (2003) album sleeve 277
    iv) Web discourse 278
    v) Map — Nairobi metropolitan area 280
    vi) Adverts
        a) Nissan Hardbody – Atoti 281
        b) Flamingo Airlines – ‘But Do we Say’ 282
        c) VCT – Eric Wainaina 283

  • Gitonga, Priscilla Nyawira:
    Music as Social Discourse: The Contribution of Popular Music to
    the Awareness and Prevention of HIV/Aids in Nairobi, Kenya.

    M.M. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (Port Elizabeth), 2009. xiii & 238 p.

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements vi
    Summary vii
    Key words viii
    List of abbreviations ix
    List of tables xi
    List of musical examples xii
    List of illustrations xiii

    Chapter 1
    Introduction to this study
    1. The aim of this study 1
    2. Rationale 2
    3. Research problem 6
    4. Objectives and research methods 7
    5. Delimitations of this study 8
    6. Outlay of chapters 9

    Chapter 2
    The people of Kenya
    1. Introduction 11
    2. Political history 12
    3. Culture 15
    4. Religion and worldview 19
    5. Language 23
    6. Music and dance 29
      6.1. Traditional music 29
      6.2. Popular music 34
        6.2.1. Benga 35
        6.2.2. Rumba and soukous 36
        6.2.3. Tanzanian rumba 37
        6.2.4. International pop 38
        6.2.5. Taarab 40
        6.2.6. Gospel music 41
    7. Gender 42

    Chapter 3
    HIV/Aids in Kenya
    1. Introduction 44
    2. Kenyan HIV/Aids statistics 45
    3. Factors influencing the spread of HIV/Aids in Kenya 48
      3.1. Predisposing factors 48
        3.1.1. Poverty 48
        3.1.2. Sexually transmitted infections 49
        3.1.3. Drug abuse and alcoholism 50
        3.1.4. Conflicts and ethnic wars 51
      3.2. Other contributing factors 52
        3.2.1. Cultural practices and perceptions 52
        3.2.2. Religion 59
    4. Those most vulnerable to HIV/Aids infection 59
    5. The impact of HIV/Aids at national level 60
      5.1. Socio-Economic impact 60
      5.2. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) 62
    6. Kenyan government interventions 63
      6.1. Leadership and co-ordination 63
      6.2. Existing Intervention strategies 65
        6.2.1. Voluntary counseling and testing 66
        6.2.2. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission 67
        6.2.3. Health system precautions and blood safety 68
        6.2.4. Condom promotion 68
        6.2.5. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections 69
        6.2.6. Creating awareness 69
        6.2.7. Treatment and care of people living with
                   HIV/Aids (PLWA) 71
    7. Visible achievements in the fight againist HIV/Aids in Kenya 72
    8. Challenges ahead 73

    Chapter 4
    The people of Nairobi
    1. Introduction 77
    2. History of Nairobi 78
    3. Population and culture of Nairobi 79
    4. Functions of Nairobi 80
      4.1. Administrative centre 80
      4.2. Business and economy centre 81
      4.3. Tourism centre 82
      4.4. Education centre 82
      4.5. Media centre 83
      4.6. Transport Hub .85
      4.7. Sports Centre 86
      4.8. Music, Literature and Film Centre .87
      4.9. Residential Area90
    5. Language 91
    6. Religion 92
    7. Social problems 93
      7.1. Crime 93
      7.2. Drug abuse and alcoholism 93
      7.3. HIV/Aids 94

    Chapter 5
    Theoretical approaches in popular music studies
    1. Introduction 97
    2. Musicological approaches to popular music analysis 104
      2.1. Schenkerian analysis 106
      2.2. Style analysis 108
      2.3. Multiparameter analysis 110
      2.4. Performance analysis 116
    3. Extra-musicological approaches to popular music analysis 118
      3.1. Sociological and cultural studies 118
        3.1.1. Ethnomusicological approaches 119
        3.1.2. Subculture analysis 120
      3.2. Semiological analysis 125
      3.3. Feminism, gender and sexuality 130
    4. An “eclectic” semiotic approach to African popular
        music analysis 133

    Chapter 6
    Reading Kenyan popular music:
    Unpopular message in a popular song
    1. Introduction 138
    2. The artists 142
      2.1. Wasike wa Musungu 142
      2.2. Circute and Jo-el 144
      2.3. The Longombas 144
      2.4. Princess Jully 146
    3. Music and Text 148
      3.1. Wasike wa Musungu: Lulumbe 148
        3.1.1 The Lyrics of Lulumbe (Strange Killer Disease) 148
        3.1.2. The Music of Lulumbe (Strange Killer Disease) 155
        3.1.3. Performance analysis 159
        3.1.4. Social significance of the music and text 161
      3.2. Circute and Jo-el: Juala 162
        3.2.1. The lyrics of Juala (Condom) 162
        3.2.2. The music of Juala (Condom) 170
        3.2.3. Performance analysis 174
        3.2.4. Social significance of the music and text 175
      3.3. Longombas: Vuta Pumz 177
        3.3.1. The Lyrics of Vuta Pumz (Take a Deep Breath) 177
        3.3.2. The Music of Vuta Pumz (Take a Deep Breath) 182
        3.3.3. Performance analysis 189
        3.3.4. Social significance of the music and the text 190
      3.4. Princess Jully: Dunia Mbaya Chunguzee 192
        3.4.1. The lyrics of Dunia Mbaya Chunguze (The World Is Dreadful, Mind Yourselves) 192
        3.4.2. The music of Dunia Mbaya Chunguze 200
        3.4.3. Performance analysis 203
        3.4.4. Social significance of the music and text 205
    4. Conclusion to this chapter 206

    Chapter 7
    Conclusion to this study 209

    Sources 213

    Addendums
    Addendum A
    Wasike wa Musungu discography 228
    Addendum B
    Circute and Jo-el discography 230
    Addendum C
    The Longombas discography 230
    Addendum D
    Princess Jully discography 231
    Addendum E
    Trancription of verbal interview(s) with Wafula Mukasa 233
    Addendum F
    Compact Disc recordings: 238
    Track 1 – Lulumbe: Wasike wa Musungu
    Track 2 – Juala: Circute and Jo-el
    Track 3 – Vuta Pumz: Longombas
    Track 4 – Dunia Mbaya Chunguze: Princess Jully

  • Wetaba, Aggrey Nganyi R.:
    Kenyan Hip-Hop as a Site of Negotiating Urban Youth Identities in Nairobi.
    Ph.D. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität (Mainz). Göttingen: Sierke Verlag,  2009. 450 p.
    ISBN 978-3-86844-188-8

    CONTENTS

    List of Figures vii
    Acknowledgements ix
    Abstract xi
    List of Abbreviations xii

    Background  1

    Chapter One
    Research Methodology 27
    1.1 Introduction 27
    1.1.1 Pilot Study 28
    1.1.2 Legal Requirement and Research Funding 29
    1.1.3 Locale of the Study 29
    1.1.4 Nairobi as Preferred Research Site 3o
    1.1.5 Taking off 33
    1.1.6 Field Techniques 34
    1.1.7 Members of the Audience as Respondents 40
    1.1.8 Native Researcher and Prior Knowledge 41
    1.1.9 Approaches to Analysis and Interpretation of Findings 43
    1.1.10 Literature Review 48
    1.1.11 Philosophical and Methodological Framework 73
    1.1.12 Theoretical Framework 77
     
    Chapter Two
    Negotiating Kenyan Youth; Hip-Hop Artists in Perspective 85
    2.1 Introduction 85
    2.2 Youth and Violence 99
    2.3 Kenyan Youth and Hip-Hop 102
    2.4 Self Revelations 103
    2.5 Kenyan Urban Space as Motivation for Youth Culture and
           Hip-Hop 105
    2.6 Eating Spots and Leisure Practices 113
    2.7 Youth and Matatu 114
    2.8 Conclusion 116

    Chapter Three
    Urban Space and Hip-Hop in Kenya 121
    3.1 The Urban as a Site for this Study 121
    3.2 Music and Leisure in the Urban Nairobi 130
    3.3 Sheng Language and Construction of Identity 
          in Kenyan Hip-Hop 140

    Chapter Four
    The Making of Kenyan Hip-Hop 157
    4.0 Meet Kenyan Artists 157
    4.1 Brief History of Kenyan Hip-Hop 162
    4.2 Kenyan Hip-Hop 165
    4.3 Kenyan Hip-Hop Music Production and Distribution 212

    Chapter Five
    Themes in Kenyan Hip-Hop 259
    5.1 Introduction 259
    5.2 The Socio-Political in Kenyan Hip-Hop: 
          The Example of ‘Unbwogable’ 289
    5.3 Gospel Hip-Hop; Rapping in the Church 304
    5.4 HIV/AIDS: Manyake! and Kenyan Hip-Hop Intervention 315
    5.5 Hip-Hop Battle “Mchongoano” 338
    5.6 Economy and Class Structure Struggles 342
    5.7 Sponsorship of Hip-Hop in Kenya 344

    Chapter Six
    Kenyan Hip-Hop; Assessing its Impact 355
    6.1 Introduction 355
    6.1.1 Quest for a Kenyan Musical Identity 357
    6.1.2 Names as Form of Expression in Kenyan Hip-Hop 36o
    6.1.3 Bidii Yangu and Referents of Economic Empowerment 364
    6.1.4 Challenging and Expanding Religious Music Taste 
             and space 367
    6.1.5 Participative Audience; Quest for Consent 370
    6.1.6 Edutainment in Kenyan Hip-Hop 371
    6.1.7 Ethnic Identity Formations 373
    6.1.8 Negotiating Culture and Music Identity in Kenya 374
    6.1.9 Kenyan Hip-Hop Movement; Negotiation from
              the Periphery 375
    6.1.10 Public Image and Youth 377
    6.1.11 Socio-political Expression and Negotiation in
               Kenyan Hip-Hop 380
    6.1.12 Costumes and Dress in Kenyan Hip-Hop 384
    6.1.13 Expression in Music and the Search for Identity 387
    6.1.14 Social Discourse 389
    6.1.15 Sense of Community and Solidarity 391
    6.1.16 Media coverage and Kenyan Hip-Hop 394

    Summary, Conclusion, Remarks and Recommendations 396

    Bibliography 407
    Discography 426
    Filmography 428
    Appendices 429

    Curriculum Vitae 449
    Declaration 450

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing Kikuyu Popular Music.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2010. 77 p. CD & DVD
    ISBN N/A – EAN code 6-164001-943019

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Dr. Joyce Nyairo 5

    1. Mapping the Music 6
    From the 1890s, The oral traditions of the Gikuyu were greatly disrupted and eroded by their protracted encounters with British colonialism.

    2. Influences: The Accordion, Yodelling, and, the Acoustic Guitar 10
    Modern Gikuyu musicians echo some of the key characteristics of American Country musicians, including their dress style, complete with stetson hats, cowboy boots 6 denim suits.

    3. The Emergence of Joseph Kamaru 25
    With over 3,000 compositions performed in at least 3 languages and in an array of styles and genres, Kamaru is the undisputed King of Kikuyu popular music.

    4. The Benga Invasion and the Boys from Gatanga 32
    The 1970s saw Kikuyu music grow in new directions as artistes engaged in collaborations with musicians from other communities, in particular Luo guitarists skilled in Benga.

    5. Gospel Wins the Day! 54
    Gospel music by the Akorino sect represented the authentic Kikuyu gospel rhythms.

    6. Production: River Road, Radio and Road Shows 57
    During the reign of pioneer Kikuyu musicians recording was a haphazard affair dependent upon the whims of the international recording labels of the time such as East African Records.

    7. Mugithi Nights: The Return to Roots 63
    The old Pentecostal Kikuyu hymn that celebrates ‘Mugithi wa Matu-ini’ (the train to the heavens) is the genesis of the term Mugithi.

    8. New Directions: Kameme Online 75
    The future of Kikuyu popular music seems to belong to those artistes who can retain the essence of Kikuyu rhythm and idiom while at the same time welding these sounds to global music forms.

    CD

    01. NYERI KWA RUBATHI Shinda Gikombe (1952)
    02. MAYAI John Arthur (1948)
    03. KWINI MARITATI H.M. Karuiki (1978)
    04. ROSANNA Sammy Ngaku (1948)
    05. GIKUU NI KIURU Wanganangu & Meeciria (1985)
    06. GWITU NI RIABAI  Sammy Ngaku (1948)
    07. NDINAKURUMA Mwangi wa Maguru (1957)
    08. KUNDA RURU Roman Warigi (1962)
    09. MUTHONI COOKA THIKA Roman Warigi (1962)
    10. MUHIKI Roman Warigi (1962)
    11. NDARI IKUMI NA INYA Joseph Kamaru (1966)
    12. NDARI YA MWARIMU Joseph Kamaru (1969)
    13. ANDU A MADARAKA Joseph Kamaru (1969)
    14. NJOHI NDIRI MWARIMU Joseph Kamaru (1966)
    15. RUGANO RWA NAIVASHA S. K. Kimani (1979)
    16. SINYORITA Francis Rugwiti (1979)
    17. CUCU WA GAKUNGA  John Ndichu (1978)
    18. TIGA KUMUTE J. B. Maina (1992)
    19. NANA D.K. Mwai (1976)

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing the Benga Rhythm.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2008. 23 p. CD & DVD
    No ISBN number or EAN code available

    CONTENTS

    Setting the Background 2
    What exactly is Benga Music? 2
    Tradition – Adaptations and Innovations 3
    Transition to Benga 4
    The Ogara Years 4
    John Ogara Odondi “Kaisa”
    Samuel Aketch Oyosi “Jabuya”
    Electric Bands and Big Producers 5
    Ochieng’ Nelly Orwa
    Melodica’s Teeth
    1960s-1970s the Golden Decades 7
    Oluoch Kanindo
    Ochieng Nelly Mengo
    George Ramogi
    Collela Mazee
    Benga Spreads its Wings 10
    – Kisii Nyanza
    – Western
    – Christopher Monyoncho Arka
    – Sukuma bin Ongaro
    – Angelica Chepkoec
    – Rift Valley
    – Central
    – Eastern
    – D.K. Mwai
    – Francis Danger
    Shapers of Benga 15
    D. O. Misiani
    River Road and the “Sessionists” 16
    Benga Mediums 17
    Benga Beyond Kenya 18
    Origin of the World 18
    Does Benga have a Future? 18
    Paul Orwa “Jasolo”
    – Eric Wainaina
    The Benga Ladies 22
    Anthology of Early Music Poets 23

    CD
    01. SAMUEL AKETCH John Ogara / Ochieng’ Nelly (1965)
    02. MONICA ONDEGO John Ogara (1963)
    03. MY BEST WISHES TO CONNY
           George Ojijo / George Ramogi (1972)
    04. LALA SALAMA D. O. Misiani (1973)
    05. SEREFANUS ANDAI  Shem Tube Andai / Simon Ayuya (1975)
    06. I LOVE YOU D. K. Mwai (1970)
    07. AMUKA SALAMA D. O. Misiani (1974)
    08. NINKI MOGATEGETE John Arisi Osababu (unknown)*
    09. SABINA YA NELLY Nelson Ochieng’ Mengo (1977)
    10. WAKUMBUKE WAZAZI
          Kakai Kilonzo / Francis Danger (1989)
    11. KWAHERI JOHANA Kalenjin Sisters (1990)
    12. MAXIMILLA Sukuma Bin Ongaro (1990)
    13. ARUWA DR. O.K. Dr. Collela Mazee (1980)

    *Exact recording dates are difficult to determine as many songs
      of this era had little information printed on the record labels.

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing Kenya’s Songs of Protest. Music as a Force for Change in Kenya: 1963-2013.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2013. 105 p. CD & DVD
    ISBN N/A – EAN code 6-164001-943125

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements & Credits 8
    Foreword 9

    Chapter 1
    Colonialism & The Freedom Struggle 11
    Chapter 2
    Independence & Self Rule 15
    Chapter 3
    The Kenyatta Era 19
    Chapter 4
    The Nyayo Era 25
    Chapter 5
    Political Assassinations 37
    Chapter 6
    The End of The Road 47
    Chapter 7
    The Post Nyayo Era 57
    Chapter 8
    Crucible of Protest 67
    Chapter 9
    From Kenyatta to Kenyatta 79
    Chapter 10
    Protest In Pictures 83
    Chapter 11
    CD Compilation 97

    CD

    01. Unbwogable Gidigidi Majimaji (Unbwogble, 2005)
    02. GANGSTERS IN PARLIAMENT
           Jabali Afrika (Rebellion 1963 To The Future. 2012)
    03. NLCHI YA KITU KIDOGO Eric Wainaina (Sawa Sawa, 2001)
    04. LUNCH TIME Nairobi City Ensemble (KaBoum Boum, 2002)
    05. NINDARONA NJIRA Zingamoto Afrika 
          (Spotlight On Kenyan Music Vol 2, 2006)
    06. BWANA SERIKALI Necessary Noize ft. Bryo & Jerry Doobie 
          (Neccessary Noize, 2000)
    07. BAHASHA YA OCAMPO Juliani (Pulpit Kwa Street, 2011)
    08. NAKUJA Sauti (Spotlight On Kenyan Music Vol 2, 2006)
    09. TEACHINGS Makadem (Teachings, 2005)
    10. RAIS WANGU Winyo (Rais Wangu, 2012)
    11. TAFSIRI HII Kalamashaka (Tafsiri Hii, 1997)
    12. MAPAMBANO Makadem (Mapambano, 2007)
    13. URITHI Iddi Achieng’ (Weapon Of Mass Reconciliation, 2012)-
    14. UTAWALA Juliani (Utawala, 2013)
    15. WEKATAYA Makadem (Weka Taya, 2007)
    16. PEOPLE’S VOICE Jabali Afrika (Mayosi, 2006)

  • Osusa, Tabu & Bill Odidi (eds.):
    Retracing Kenya’s Funky Hits. Afro Boogie of the 70s & 80s.
    Nairobi: Ketebul Music, 2011. 85 p. CD & DVD
    ISBN N/A – EAN code 6-164001-943088

    CONTENTS

    Foreword 7

    1. James Brown 8
    2. The Starlight Club 10
    3. Robbie Armstrong 12
    4. The Ashantis 14
    5. Cavaliers 16
    6. Air Fiesta Matata 18
    7. Steele Beuttah 20
    8. Hodi Boys 22
    9. Faisal Brown 24
    10. JumaToto 26
    11. Slim Ali 28
    12. Ben Nicholas 30
    13. Kelly Brown 32
    14. Ismael Jingo 34
    15. Sal Davies 36
    16. Makonde 40
    17. Alan Donovan 42
    18. African Heritage 44
    19. Musikly Speaking 45
    20. Gordon Ominde 46
    21. From The Funky Photo File 48
    22. The Boogies 64
    23. Funk Radio 66
    24. Abdul Haq 68
    25. George Opiyo 69
    26. Kazungu Katana 69
    27. Nicola Miyawa 70
    28. Mahanjam Mike 71
    29. Salaams Clubs 72
    30. Mombasa Funk 74
    31. Kisumu Funk 76
    32. Disco Kills Funk 77
    33. Funky Vinyl 78

    CD
    01. MAKINI Sal Davies 1969
    02. EVERYBODY’S GROOVE Ashantis 1975
    03. I WANNA DO MY THING Air Fiesta Matata 1972
    04. FROG SOUL Faisal Brown & The Hodi Boys 1971
    05. SAVAGED Black Savage 1977
    06. DUNIA INA MAMBO The Mighty Cavaliers 1976
    07. YOU CAN DO IT Slim Ali & The Hodi Boys 1977
    08. LET’S STAY TOGETHER Ashantis 1975
    09. WHAT’S THAT SOUND Steele Beauttah 1975
    10. MAMBO BADO The Mighty Cavaliers 1980
    11. I DON’T KNOW WHAT TO DO Black Savage 1977
    12. GIMME SOMETHING LOVE Slim Ali & The Hodi Boys 1977
    13. AFRICAN STOMP Air Fiesta Matata 1976
    14. FEVER Ismael Jingo 1974
    15. HIGHER Kelly Brown 1980

  • Njenga, Maureen Charity Muthoni :
    Mũgithi Perfomance as a Form of Social Cohesion among the Agĩkũyũ of Kenya.
    M.M. University of KwaZulu-Natal (Durban), 2010. ix & 140 p.

    CONTENTS

    Declaration ii
    Acknowledgements iii
    Table of Contents iv
    List of Illustrations vi
    Abstract of Dissertation ix

    Chapter One
    Introduction 1
    1.1 The Agĩkũyũ People 3
    1.2 Research Problems and Objectives 8
    1.3 Literature Review 9
        1.3.1 The Mwomboko Dance 10
        1.3.2 Mwomboko within Mũgithi 13
    1.4 Principal theories in which this study is based upon 14
    1.5 Research Methodology and Methods 15
    1.6 Summary abstract of the rest of the chapters 20
    1.7 Glossary of Terms 22

    Chapter Two
    History of Mwomboko, Gĩcandĩ and Irua 23
    2.1 Irua Music 24
    2.2 Gĩcandĩ Music 27
    2.3 Mwomboko Music 29
    2.4 Conclusion 32

    Chapter Three
    The Birth of the 1990s Mũgithi Concept
    Through its Performers
    34
    3.1 The Birth and Development of Mũgithi Music (1970s-1980s) 35
        3.1.1 Joseph Kamaru 37
    3.2 The Birth and Develoment of the Mũgithi Performance 
          (1990s- 2009) 39
        3.2.1 Mike Rua 43
        3.2.2 Salim ‘Junior’ 46
        3.2.3 Salim ‘Mighty’ 49

    Chapter Four
    Mũgithi Music and the Establishment of Style 53
    4.1 Mũgithi through the Singer-cum-guitarist and 
          Drummer Performance Concept 54
    4.2 Mũgithi’s use of Popular Music 57
    4.3 Mwomboko Section 58
        4.3.1 Gĩcandĩ Lyrics 59
        4.3.2 Voice and Guitar Relationship 63
        4.3.3 lrua Lyrics 72
    4.4 Gospel Music 73
    4.5 Conclusion 73

    Chapter Five
     Social Cohesion through Performance 75
    5.1 Mwomboko Music and Social Cohesion 76
        5.1.1 Mboco Ĩrĩ Mbuca 76
        5.1.2 Cheni Ni Cheni 79
        5.1.3 Twathiaga Tukenete 80
        5.1.4 Kibata Kia Matuko Maya 83
        5.1.5 Ngahikania Nenda 84
    5.2 Conclusion 85

    Bibliography 92

    Appendix I
    Transcriptions 96
    Appendix II
    Film- Paper Edit 139

  • Maina wa Mũtonya:
    The Politics of Everyday Life in Gĩkũyũ Popular Music of Kenya.
    Nairobi: Twaweza Communications Ltd., 2013. 172 p.
    ISBN 978-9966-028-44-0

    CONTENTS

    Dedication iii
    About the Author vii
    Acknowledgements ix
    Preface xi

    Chapter One
    Introduction 1
    Chapter Two
    The Politics of Everyday Life in Select Gĩkũyũ Popular Music
    (1990-2000) 26
    Chapter Three
    Praise and Protest: Music and Contesting Patriotisms in
    Postcolonial Kenya 51
    Chapter Four
    Joseph Kamarũ’s Music: Cutting with Words, not Swords 70
    Chapter Five
    ‘Touch What You Don’t Have’: Mũgithi, One-Man Guitar and
    Urban Identities 95
    Chapter Six
    Mũgithi Performance: Popular Music, Stereotypes and
    Ethnic Identity 118
    Conclusion
    Music and Society: The Consummate Marriage 140
    Postscript
    Jane Nyambura (Queen Jane) 1965- 2010 148

    Bibliography 155

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes. 2nd edition
    Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2015.  xii & 326 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8195-7539-5 (paper) 978-0-8195-7540-1 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Banning Eyre ix
    Introduction 1

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The Birth of Afrobeat 27
    2 Joe Mensah Remembers 41
    3 Fela in Ghana 49
    4 Stan Plange Remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is Born 67
    6 “JB” Talks about Fela 73
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 81
    8 The Black President 114
    9 Amsterdam and After 125

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 139
    11 Frank Talk about Fela 152
    12 Obiba Plays It Again 165
    13 Smart Binete Sorts It Out 174
    14 Anku Checks Out the Beat 178
    15 Nana Danso Orchestrates 183
    16 Some Early Afro-Fusion Pioneers 197
    17 Interview with Fela 204
    18 Afterthoughts and Updates 209
    19. Felabrations at Home and Abroad 238

    Chronology 259
    Notes 269
    Selected Bibliography 281
    Discography 285
    Appendix A: “Shuffering and Shmiling” Score 303
    Index 309

  • Erlmann, Veit (ed.):
    Populäre Musik in Afrika.

    Veröffentlichungen des Museum für Völkerkunde.
    Neue Folge 53. Abteilung Musikethnologie VIII.
    Berlin: Museum für Völkerkunde, 1991. 312 pp. & 2 CDs.
    ISBN 3-88609-213-5

    bender1985INHALT (Button Type)

    Klick hier (Button Title)

    Class to Execute Popup (shortcode id number)

    Picture:

    Align “Left”

    map-mobile

    Image Margins – Bottom

  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

    ÍNDICE

    Replace “Portuguese template – click Clone & Edit” (the popup name) with the common name for the content file and jpg file  (e.g. “mortaigne1997”)

    Insert name of author, title and place of publication in the text box.
    Text colour red. Title in bold. ISBN number in black and 10 px.

    Right side column:
    Button Text: Índice
    Button Title: Clique aqui

    Class to Execute Popup: Insert “Shortcode” popuppress id number

    Picture:
    Click on picture – and then click on “Remove”
    Place curser in front of “SUMÁRIO”

    Click on “Add Media” and select jpg file. Insert.
    Align: Left
    Image CSS class: map-mobile
    Image Margins: Set “Bottom” value i.e. 500
    Insert text from content file. Edit text and save. 

    Adjust  Bottom value if necessary and Publish pup-up
     Copy “Shortcode” including square brackets e.g. Índice and inset and replace it for “Sumário” in the book list file.

  • Insert title etc. here
    ISBN number

    TABLE DES MATIÈRESafropop1995

    Table des matières (Button Text)

    Cliquez ici (Button Title)

    Class to Execute Popup (insert Shortcode popuppress id number)

    Picture:

    Click on picture “Edit” and set/insert:

    “Align” Left

    “Image CSS class” map-mobile

    Image Margins – “Bottom” (set value i.e. 500)

  • Sweeney, Philip:
    Directory of World Music. A Guide to Performers and their Music.
    With Contributions from Peter Gabriel, Andy Kershaw, Giberto Gil [&] Manu Dibango.
    London: Virgin Books, 1991. 262 p.
    Section Africa 1-81
    ISBN 0-86369-378-4

    sweeney1991CONTENTS

    AFRICA

    The North and West
    Introduction: Peter Gabriel 1
    Libya 3
    Tunisia 5
    Algeria 6
    Morocco 13
    Mauritania 16
    Senegal 17
    Mali 20
    Guinea 26
    Guinea-Bissau 29
    Cape Verde 29
    Sierra Leone 31
    Côte d’Ivoire 32
    Ghana 34
    Togo and Benin 36
    Nigeria 37

    Central Africa, The South and East
    Introduction: Manu Dibango 42
    Cameroon 44
    Zaire 49
    Congo 56
    Gabon 56
    Angola 57
    Zambia 58
    Mozambique 59
    Zimbabwe 60
    South Africa 65
    Madagascar 70
    Mauritius and Reunion 71
    Tanzania and Zanzibar 72
    Kenya 74
    Uganda 76
    Burundi 76
    Ethiopia 77
    Sudan 79

  • Lee, Hélène:
    Rockers d’Afrique. Stars et légendes du rock mandinque.
    Paris: Albin Michel, 1988. 223 pp.
    ISBN 2-226-03 139-1 

    TABLE DE MATIÈRESafropop1995

    Click here to open pop-up

    Click here

    Cliquez ici pour ouvrir la fenêtre pop-up

    Cliquez ici

    Clique aqui para abrir o pop-up
    Clique aqui

    Klick hier