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Crocq, Philippe & Jean Mareska:
Corneille. Du Rwanda à Paris.
Enghein-les-bains: Éditions de la Lagune, 2006. 174 p.
Table des matières

McCoy, Jason T.:
Mbwirabumva (“I Speak to Those Who Understand”): Three
Songs by Simon Bikindi and the War and Genocide in Rwanda.

Ph.D. Florida State University (Tallahassee, Fla.), 2013. xi & 387 p.
ContentsPDF Download / Télécharger / Baixar 2.32 MB

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  • Crocq, Philippe & Jean Mareska:
    Corneille. Du Rwanda à Paris.
    Enghein-les-bains: Éditions de la Lagune, 2006. 174 p.
    ISBN 2-84969-045-7

    TABLE DES MATIÈRES

    Préface : Les yeux brillants (conte rwandais) 7

    De la Forêt-Noire au pays des mille collines 9
    Les musiques du Rwanda 19
    Le génocide sur lequel on a fermé les yeux 25
    Les gens qui connaissent la souffrance n’ont pas d’ethnie 31
    Corneille d’hier et d’aujourd’hui 35
    Modèles, mentors et idoles 39
    Il n’y a pas de froideur allemande 59
    Revenir à la musique 63
    Canada 69
    De Düsseldorf à la Belle Province 73
    Pas fâché 81
    Wagram 85
    Le public l’attendait 93
    Et la Cigale chanta … 95
    Scènes et bravos 99
    Les marchands de rêve 103
    Back to Africa 107
    De 2004 à nos jours 115
    Femmes d’un seul homme 119
    L’horreur est humaine (Coluche) 125
    L’amour qui referme les blessures 131
    Pensées Cornéliennes 137
    Quelques mots rwandais 139
    Glossaire 141
    Discographie 163

  • McCoy, Jason T.:
    Mbwirabumva (“I Speak to Those Who Understand”): 
    Three Songs by Simon Bikindi and the War and Genocide in Rwanda.

    Ph.D. Florida State University (Tallahassee, Fla.), 2013. xi & 387 p.

    CONTENTS

    Abstract ix

    Chapter 1
    Introduction 1
    Significance of the Study 14
    Review of Literature 16
       Historical and Sociological Studies of the Genocide 16
       Music and Mass Atrocity 22
       Censorship of Music 25
       Literature on Bikindi 28
    Biographical Sketch of Bikindi 33
       Childhood 33
       Adolescence 35
       Early Adulthood and Professional Life 36
       Bikindi the Celebrity 38
       Musical and Compositional Approach 39
       “Twasazareye” and the Founding of Itorero Irindiro 40
       Economic Collapse, Multipartyism, Civil War, and Genocide 41
       Personal Impressions 44
    Methodology 46
       Ethics of Research in a Post-Conflict Region 51
       Conceptual Approach 56
       Live Texts 57
       Polyvocal Ethnography 60
       Hermeneutic Phenomenology 62
       Ethnography of the Individual 63
    Chapter Organization 64

    Chapter 2
    Historical Background of the Genocide and its Politicization 66
    General Framework of Rwandan History 68
    The Ancient Era 71
       The Origins of Hutu and Tutsi 72
    The Abanyiginya Monarchial Era 74
       Ruganzu Ndori and the Birth of the Abanyiginya Dyansty 74
       The Beginning of the Patron=Client System 76
       The Expansion and Complexity of the Monarchy 77
       Hutu and Tutsi as Occupational and Socioeconomic Identities 79
       The Social and Political Inferiorizing of Hutu 80
       The End of the Dynasty 81
       Colonial-Monarchial Era 81
       The Hamitic Myth and the Racialization of Hutu and Tutsi 82
       The Colonial=Monarchial Alliance 83
       Belgian Colonialism and the Further Racialization of
       Hutu and Tutsi 84
       The Democratic Revolution of 1959=1961 86
    The Independent Republic Era 88
       Rubanda Nyamwinshi and the Persecution of Tutsi
       under PARMEHutu 88
       Habyarimana and the Second Republic 90
       Economic Collapse and Multipartyism 91
       War with the RPF and the Arusha Accords 92
    The Genocide 94
    Concluding Remarks 96

    Chapter 3
    The Trail 99
    Purpose in Studying Bikindi’s Trail 100
    Chronology and Composition of the Chamber and Counsels 102
    Explanation of the Charges 103
       Genocide 103
       Conspiracy to Commit Genocide 106
       Complicity in Genocide 106
       Direct and Public Incitement to Commit Genocide 107
       Murder and Persecution as Crimes against Humanity 111
    Specific Charges and Judges’ Decisions 114
       Massacre of Tutsi Prisoners at the Gisenyi Prison 114
       Murder of Stanislas Gasasira 121
       Murders of Karasira and Family 122
       Massacres at Nyamyumba and Incident at Rugerero
       Roadblock 124
       Rape and Killing of Ancilla and Her Daughter 126
       Massacres at Camp Scout 127
       Murders of Three Women at Commune Rouge 128
       Allegations of Sexual Violence 128
       Conspiring with Political and Military Leaders and
       RTLM Personnel 128
       Statements Delivered at Political Rallies 130
       Statements Delivered on the Road between Kivumu
       and Kayove 133
       Composing Songs with the Intent to Incite Genocide 136
    Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances 138
    Verdict and Sentencing 139
    The Appeal 139
    Bikindi’s Final Statement to the Court 143
    Concluding Remarks 146

    Chapter 4
    The Songs 150
    Claims from the Prosecution, Defence, and Final Judgement 154
    Confliction Interpretations of the Songs 157
       Political Allegiances and Conflicting Interpretations 159
       Experiences of the Genocide and Its Aftermath and Conflicting
       Interpretations 160
       Perceptions of Bikindi among Hutu vs. Tutsi Participants 161
       Perceptions of History and Conflicting Interpretations of
       the Songs 162
    The Spoken and Unspoken in Kinyarwanda Discourse 163
    The Historical and Political Role of Rwandan Musicians 170
    Notes on Translation Methods and Orthography 171
    Concerning Issues of Intellectual Property Rights 176
    “Twasazareye” (“We Bade Farewell”) 177
    “Akabyutso” (“The Awakening”) 187
    “Intabaza” (“Intabaza”) 196

    Chapter 5
    Commentary on the Songs 216
    Commentary from Personal Conversations 217
    Commentary from the Trail: “Twasazareye” 225
       Testimony from Prosecution Witnesses 225
       Testimony from Defense Witnesses 231
    Commentary from the Trail: “Akabyutso” 236
       Testimony from Prosecution Witnesses 236
       Testimony from Defense Witnesses 238
    Commentary from the Trail:  “Intabaza” (“The Alert”) 246
       Testimony from Prosecution Witnesses 246
       Testimony from Defense Witnesses 247

    Chapter 6
    Radio and the Propagandinzation of the Songs 253
    From Radio Rawanda to RTLM 255
       Radio Rwanda vs. Radio Muhabura 256
       The Founding and Format of RTLM 257
       RTLM as Voice of the People or Voice of the Government? 259
       The Legitimization of RTLM as a Source of Information
       and Analysis 260
       From Respectable Critique to Outright Hatred 267
    Arguments Concerning the Effectiveness of RTLM in
    Inciting Genocide 269
    The Workings of Propaganda 271
    A Narrative of Victimhood and Victory 276

    Chapter 7
    Music, Remembrance, Self-Narrativity, and Healing
    Among Five Genocide Survivors
    283
    Case Study 1: Julius 284
       Nostalgia for a Nightmare?  288
       Nostalgia as Self=Resurrection 290
       Music as a Catalyst for Nostalgia 292
    Case Study 2: Pierre 295
    Case Study 3: Innocent 298
       Innocent listens to Bikindi’s Songs 305
    Trauma, Self-Narrativity, and Healing 308
       Defining and Conceptualizing Trauma 308
       The Need to Tell in the Aftermath of Genocide 311
       The Need for a Listener 317
       The Role of Bikindi’s Songs in Therapeutic Self=Narrativity 321
    Case Study 4: Jeannette and Augustin 323

    Chapter 8
    Coerced Self-Censorship of Bikindi’s Songs 328
    The Sociopolitical Context of Censorship in Rwanda 330
    Examples of RPT Indoctrination Processes 334
       The National Museum of Rwanda 334
       Educational Policies 335
       Indoctrination Camps (Ingando) 336
       Compulsory Attendance at Gacaca 337
       Censorship of News Media 340
       Genocide Memorials 342
       The Suppression of Criticism of the RPF 347
       Elimination of Political Opponents 349
    Why Bikindi’s Songs are Censored 351
    Law Related to Censorship 353
    Identity, Suspicion, and Ownership of Bikindi’s Songs 357
       The Freedom of Tutsi and RPF Supporters 358
       The Concerns of Some Hutu and RPF Critics 359
    Coerced Self-Censorship 363
    Justifying the Censorship of Bikindi’s Songs 364

    Epilogue 367

    Apendix A
    E-mail Correspondence dated 23 may 2008 from the Florida State University Institutional Review Board for Research Involving Human Subjects 373

    References 374

    Biographical Sketch 387

  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

    CONTENTS

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  • Johnson, John William:
    ‘Heelloy’. Modern Poetry and Songs of the Somalis.
    London: HAAN Publishing, 1998. xxiii & 241 p.
    ISBN 978-1-874-20981-2

    CONTENTS

    Foreword to the first edition by B. W. Andrzejewski ix
    Foreword to the 1996 edition by Abdilahi Qarshi xi
    Preface to the first edition xv
    Preface to the 1996 edition xxiii

    1. Introduction
    The social context 1
    The Nature of Traditional Pastoralist Poetry 12
    The Historical Development of Modern Oral Poetry 17

    2. The Family of Miniature Genres
    The Nature of the Family of Miniature Genres 27
    The Poetry of the Miniature Family 32

    3. The emergence of the Belwo
    The Historical Background 49
    The Belwo is Born 53
    The Poetry of the Belwo 59

    4. The Heello: Period One
    The Metamorphosis: Belwo to Heello A 75
    The Modem Poem: Heello A to Heello B 82

    5. The Heello: Period Two
    The Historical Background 95
    The Poetry of the Second Period 103

    6. The Heello: Period Three
    The Historical Background 117
    The Poetry of the Third Period 146

    7. Characteristics of the Heello: All Periods
    Themes Common to All Periods 175
    Structural Characteristics and
    Development Common to All Periods 190
    The Impact of Media on Modern Poetry 208

    8. Conclusion
    The Inheritance of the Heello 215
    Forces Behind the Success and Development of Modern Poetry 216

  • McCoy, Jason T.:
    Mbwirabumva (“I Speak to Those Who Understand”): 
    Three Songs by Simon Bikindi and the War and Genocide in Rwanda.

    Ph.D. Florida State University (Tallahassee, Fla.), 2013. xi & 387 p.

    CONTENTS

    Abstract ix

    Chapter 1
    Introduction 1
    Significance of the Study 14
    Review of Literature 16
       Historical and Sociological Studies of the Genocide 16
       Music and Mass Atrocity 22
       Censorship of Music 25
       Literature on Bikindi 28
    Biographical Sketch of Bikindi 33
       Childhood 33
       Adolescence 35
       Early Adulthood and Professional Life 36
       Bikindi the Celebrity 38
       Musical and Compositional Approach 39
       “Twasazareye” and the Founding of Itorero Irindiro 40
       Economic Collapse, Multipartyism, Civil War, and Genocide 41
       Personal Impressions 44
    Methodology 46
       Ethics of Research in a Post-Conflict Region 51
       Conceptual Approach 56
       Live Texts 57
       Polyvocal Ethnography 60
       Hermeneutic Phenomenology 62
       Ethnography of the Individual 63
    Chapter Organization 64

    Chapter 2
    Historical Background of the Genocide and its Politicization 66
    General Framework of Rwandan History 68
    The Ancient Era 71
       The Origins of Hutu and Tutsi 72
    The Abanyiginya Monarchial Era 74
       Ruganzu Ndori and the Birth of the Abanyiginya Dyansty 74
       The Beginning of the Patron=Client System 76
       The Expansion and Complexity of the Monarchy 77
       Hutu and Tutsi as Occupational and Socioeconomic Identities 79
       The Social and Political Inferiorizing of Hutu 80
       The End of the Dynasty 81
       Colonial-Monarchial Era 81
       The Hamitic Myth and the Racialization of Hutu and Tutsi 82
       The Colonial=Monarchial Alliance 83
       Belgian Colonialism and the Further Racialization of
       Hutu and Tutsi 84
       The Democratic Revolution of 1959=1961 86
    The Independent Republic Era 88
       Rubanda Nyamwinshi and the Persecution of Tutsi
       under PARMEHutu 88
       Habyarimana and the Second Republic 90
       Economic Collapse and Multipartyism 91
       War with the RPF and the Arusha Accords 92
    The Genocide 94
    Concluding Remarks 96

    Chapter 3
    The Trail 99
    Purpose in Studying Bikindi’s Trail 100
    Chronology and Composition of the Chamber and Counsels 102
    Explanation of the Charges 103
       Genocide 103
       Conspiracy to Commit Genocide 106
       Complicity in Genocide 106
       Direct and Public Incitement to Commit Genocide 107
       Murder and Persecution as Crimes against Humanity 111
    Specific Charges and Judges’ Decisions 114
       Massacre of Tutsi Prisoners at the Gisenyi Prison 114
       Murder of Stanislas Gasasira 121
       Murders of Karasira and Family 122
       Massacres at Nyamyumba and Incident at Rugerero
       Roadblock 124
       Rape and Killing of Ancilla and Her Daughter 126
       Massacres at Camp Scout 127
       Murders of Three Women at Commune Rouge 128
       Allegations of Sexual Violence 128
       Conspiring with Political and Military Leaders and
       RTLM Personnel 128
       Statements Delivered at Political Rallies 130
       Statements Delivered on the Road between Kivumu
       and Kayove 133
       Composing Songs with the Intent to Incite Genocide 136
    Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances 138
    Verdict and Sentencing 139
    The Appeal 139
    Bikindi’s Final Statement to the Court 143
    Concluding Remarks 146

    Chapter 4
    The Songs 150
    Claims from the Prosecution, Defence, and Final Judgement 154
    Confliction Interpretations of the Songs 157
       Political Allegiances and Conflicting Interpretations 159
       Experiences of the Genocide and Its Aftermath and Conflicting
       Interpretations 160
       Perceptions of Bikindi among Hutu vs. Tutsi Participants 161
       Perceptions of History and Conflicting Interpretations of
       the Songs 162
    The Spoken and Unspoken in Kinyarwanda Discourse 163
    The Historical and Political Role of Rwandan Musicians 170
    Notes on Translation Methods and Orthography 171
    Concerning Issues of Intellectual Property Rights 176
    “Twasazareye” (“We Bade Farewell”) 177
    “Akabyutso” (“The Awakening”) 187
    “Intabaza” (“Intabaza”) 196

    Chapter 5
    Commentary on the Songs 216
    Commentary from Personal Conversations 217
    Commentary from the Trail: “Twasazareye” 225
       Testimony from Prosecution Witnesses 225
       Testimony from Defense Witnesses 231
    Commentary from the Trail: “Akabyutso” 236
       Testimony from Prosecution Witnesses 236
       Testimony from Defense Witnesses 238
    Commentary from the Trail:  “Intabaza” (“The Alert”) 246
       Testimony from Prosecution Witnesses 246
       Testimony from Defense Witnesses 247

    Chapter 6
    Radio and the Propagandinzation of the Songs 253
    From Radio Rawanda to RTLM 255
       Radio Rwanda vs. Radio Muhabura 256
       The Founding and Format of RTLM 257
       RTLM as Voice of the People or Voice of the Government? 259
       The Legitimization of RTLM as a Source of Information
       and Analysis 260
       From Respectable Critique to Outright Hatred 267
    Arguments Concerning the Effectiveness of RTLM in
    Inciting Genocide 269
    The Workings of Propaganda 271
    A Narrative of Victimhood and Victory 276

    Chapter 7
    Music, Remembrance, Self-Narrativity, and Healing
    Among Five Genocide Survivors
    283
    Case Study 1: Julius 284
       Nostalgia for a Nightmare?  288
       Nostalgia as Self=Resurrection 290
       Music as a Catalyst for Nostalgia 292
    Case Study 2: Pierre 295
    Case Study 3: Innocent 298
       Innocent listens to Bikindi’s Songs 305
    Trauma, Self-Narrativity, and Healing 308
       Defining and Conceptualizing Trauma 308
       The Need to Tell in the Aftermath of Genocide 311
       The Need for a Listener 317
       The Role of Bikindi’s Songs in Therapeutic Self=Narrativity 321
    Case Study 4: Jeannette and Augustin 323

    Chapter 8
    Coerced Self-Censorship of Bikindi’s Songs 328
    The Sociopolitical Context of Censorship in Rwanda 330
    Examples of RPT Indoctrination Processes 334
       The National Museum of Rwanda 334
       Educational Policies 335
       Indoctrination Camps (Ingando) 336
       Compulsory Attendance at Gacaca 337
       Censorship of News Media 340
       Genocide Memorials 342
       The Suppression of Criticism of the RPF 347
       Elimination of Political Opponents 349
    Why Bikindi’s Songs are Censored 351
    Law Related to Censorship 353
    Identity, Suspicion, and Ownership of Bikindi’s Songs 357
       The Freedom of Tutsi and RPF Supporters 358
       The Concerns of Some Hutu and RPF Critics 359
    Coerced Self-Censorship 363
    Justifying the Censorship of Bikindi’s Songs 364

    Epilogue 367

    Apendix A
    E-mail Correspondence dated 23 may 2008 from the Florida State University Institutional Review Board for Research Involving Human Subjects 373

    References 374

    Biographical Sketch 387

  • Crocq, Philippe & Jean Mareska:
    Corneille. Du Rwanda à Paris.
    Enghein-les-bains: Éditions de la Lagune, 2006. 174 p.
    ISBN 2-84969-045-7

    TABLE DES MATIÈRES

    Préface : Les yeux brillants (conte rwandais) 7

    De la Forêt-Noire au pays des mille collines 9
    Les musiques du Rwanda 19
    Le génocide sur lequel on a fermé les yeux 25
    Les gens qui connaissent la souffrance n’ont pas d’ethnie 31
    Corneille d’hier et d’aujourd’hui 35
    Modèles, mentors et idoles 39
    Il n’y a pas de froideur allemande 59
    Revenir à la musique 63
    Canada 69
    De Düsseldorf à la Belle Province 73
    Pas fâché 81
    Wagram 85
    Le public l’attendait 93
    Et la Cigale chanta … 95
    Scènes et bravos 99
    Les marchands de rêve 103
    Back to Africa 107
    De 2004 à nos jours 115
    Femmes d’un seul homme 119
    L’horreur est humaine (Coluche) 125
    L’amour qui referme les blessures 131
    Pensées Cornéliennes 137
    Quelques mots rwandais 139
    Glossaire 141
    Discographie 163

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes. 2nd edition
    Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2015.  xii & 326 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8195-7539-5 (paper) 978-0-8195-7540-1 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Banning Eyre ix
    Introduction 1

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The Birth of Afrobeat 27
    2 Joe Mensah Remembers 41
    3 Fela in Ghana 49
    4 Stan Plange Remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is Born 67
    6 “JB” Talks about Fela 73
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 81
    8 The Black President 114
    9 Amsterdam and After 125

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 139
    11 Frank Talk about Fela 152
    12 Obiba Plays It Again 165
    13 Smart Binete Sorts It Out 174
    14 Anku Checks Out the Beat 178
    15 Nana Danso Orchestrates 183
    16 Some Early Afro-Fusion Pioneers 197
    17 Interview with Fela 204
    18 Afterthoughts and Updates 209
    19. Felabrations at Home and Abroad 238

    Chronology 259
    Notes 269
    Selected Bibliography 281
    Discography 285
    Appendix A: “Shuffering and Shmiling” Score 303
    Index 309

  • Erlmann, Veit (ed.):
    Populäre Musik in Afrika.

    Veröffentlichungen des Museum für Völkerkunde.
    Neue Folge 53. Abteilung Musikethnologie VIII.
    Berlin: Museum für Völkerkunde, 1991. 312 pp. & 2 CDs.
    ISBN 3-88609-213-5

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  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

    ÍNDICE

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  • Sweeney, Philip:
    Directory of World Music. A Guide to Performers and their Music.
    With Contributions from Peter Gabriel, Andy Kershaw, Giberto Gil [&] Manu Dibango.
    London: Virgin Books, 1991. 262 p.
    Section Africa 1-81
    ISBN 0-86369-378-4

    sweeney1991CONTENTS

    AFRICA

    The North and West
    Introduction: Peter Gabriel 1
    Libya 3
    Tunisia 5
    Algeria 6
    Morocco 13
    Mauritania 16
    Senegal 17
    Mali 20
    Guinea 26
    Guinea-Bissau 29
    Cape Verde 29
    Sierra Leone 31
    Côte d’Ivoire 32
    Ghana 34
    Togo and Benin 36
    Nigeria 37

    Central Africa, The South and East
    Introduction: Manu Dibango 42
    Cameroon 44
    Zaire 49
    Congo 56
    Gabon 56
    Angola 57
    Zambia 58
    Mozambique 59
    Zimbabwe 60
    South Africa 65
    Madagascar 70
    Mauritius and Reunion 71
    Tanzania and Zanzibar 72
    Kenya 74
    Uganda 76
    Burundi 76
    Ethiopia 77
    Sudan 79

  • Lee, Hélène:
    Rockers d’Afrique. Stars et légendes du rock mandinque.
    Paris: Albin Michel, 1988. 223 pp.
    ISBN 2-226-03 139-1 

    TABLE DE MATIÈRESafropop1995

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