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Barz, Gregory:
Music in East Africa.
Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture.
New York, N.Y. & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 139 p. & CD
Contents

Campbell, Carol [Ann Arneson]:
Sauti za Amu: An Exploratory Study of Swahili Music.
M.A. University of Washington (Seattle, Wash.), 1974.

Campbell, Carol Ann Arneson:
Nyimbo za Kiswahili: A Socio-Ethnomusicological Study of a Swahili Poetic Form (Africa).
Ph.D. University of Washington (Seattle, Wash.), 1983, 311 p.
ProQuest no. 8308601

Graebner, Werner:
Urbanes Leben in Afrika – dargestellt an ausgewählten
volkstümlichen Texten des swahilisprachigen Raums.

M.A. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 1984. 156 p.
Inhalt

Gunderson, Frank & Gregory Barz:
Mashindano! Competitive Music Performance in East Africa.
Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, 2000. 468 p.
Contents

Njogu, Kimani & Hervé Maupeu (eds.):
Songs and Politics in Eastern Africa.
Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers /
Nairobi: l’Institute français de recherche en Afrique (IFRA), 2007. 401 p.
Contents

Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
Gender, Identity, and Performance.
Understanding Swahili Cultural Realities through Song.
Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, Inc., 2003. 361 p.
Contents

Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
East African Hip Hop.
Youth Culture and Globalization.
Urbana & Chicago, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2009. 158 p.
Contents

Ranger, T[erence] O.:
Dance and Society in Eastern Africa 1890-1970. The Beni Ngoma.
London: Heinemann, 1975. 176 p.
Contents

Rizk, Mohamed El-Mohammady:
Women in Taarab. The Performing Art in East Africa.
Schriften zur Afrikanistik / Research in African Studies, Band 11.
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2007. 198 p.
Contents

Rosenberg, Aaron Louis:
Eastern African Popular Songs: Verbal Art in States of Transformation.
Ph.D. The Pennsylvania State University (State College, Pa.), 2006. 343 p.
ProQuest no. 3231173

Rosenberg, Aaron Louis:
Eastern African Popular Songs. Verbal Art in States of Transformation.
Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2011. 328 p.
ISBN 978-1-5922-1856-1

Rosenberg, Aaron Louis:
Canciones populares y literatura de África Oriental – Vínculos artísticos e identitarios.
México, D.F.: El Colegio de México. Centro de Estudios de Asia y Africa, 2013. 518 p.
Índice

Shariff, Ibrahim Noor:
Tungo zetu. Msingi wa mashairi na tungo nyinginezo.
[Our poetry: Poetics of mashairi and other poems].
Trenton, N.J.: The Red Sea Press, 1988. xvii & 242 p.
ISBN 978-0-9324-1533-2

Page created 20/09/2017 © afrobib.com

  • Barz, Gregory:
    Music in East Africa.
    Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture.
    New York, N.Y. & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 139 p. & CD
    ISBN 978-0-19-514152-8

    CONTENTS

    Foreword xi
    Preface xiii
    CD Track List xvii

    1. Heating Up!
    East Africa 1
    Traditional Music Performance: The Example of Ngoma 4
    What is “Music” in East Africa? 5
    Greetings 8
    Conclusion 14

    2. Traditional Performances in Two Villages and a Town
    Introduction 16
    Case Study #1: Nyanhugi Village, Sukumaland, Tanzania 18
    Case Study #2: Bugwere Village, Busoga Region,
    Eastern Uganda 25
    Case Study #3: Kisumu Town, Western Kenya 33
    Musical Transcription 36
    Gender and Traditional Music Performance in East Africa 37
    Conclusion 38

    3. Fostering Social Cohesion: Competition and Traditional Musical Performance
    Introduction: Competition as Social Cohesion 40
    Case Study #1: Bulabo in Sukumaland, Tanzania 41
    Bufumu 47
    Bagaalu and Bagiika Dance Societies 47
    Samba 48
    Changes and Adaptation in Bulabo 49
    Case Study #2: Choir Competitions in Dar es Salaam 52
    Vignette 1: The Initial Evangelical Encounter 53
    Vignette 2: The Emergence of Tanzanian Voices 55
    Vignette 3: A Postcolonial Moment 56
    Conclusion 58

    4. Individuals in East African Musical Worlds:
    Gideon Mdegella and Centurio Balikoowa

    Introduction 59
    Vignette 1: Gideon Mdegella 62
    Vignette 2: Centurio Balikoowa 63
    Communities and Musical Specialists 63
    Gideon Mdegella: “Mwalimu” 64
    Mwalimu wa Kwaya: Ritual-Musical Specialists in the Tanzanian Lutheran Church 65
    “I Am Able to See Very Far, but I Am Unable to Reach There” 66
    Mdegella and “First-Class Music” 75
    Centurio Balikoowa 75
    Background 76
    Musical Instruments 78
    Endere (Flute) 78
    Endingidi (Tubefiddle)   81
    Construction of the Endingidi 82
    Ntongooli (Bowl Lyre) 84
    Personal History 86
    Conclusion 88

    5. Situating Traditional Music within Modernity
    Introduction 89
    Vignette: Anthems and Identity 90
    Case Study #1: Mu Kkubo Ery ‘Omusaalaba 101
    Basic Tenets of Kiganda Traditional Music 102
    Issue of Timbre 102
    Drumming 104
    Issue of Interlocking Patterns 106
    Case Study #2: “The Roots of Benga” 108
    D. O. Misiani, the “King” of Benga 111
    Conclusion: Popular versus Traditional – “Modernity Happened!” 114

    6. Cooling Down!
    Introduction 118
    Traditional Music and the Interrelation of the Arts in East Africa 118

    Glossary 124
    Resources 126
    Index 137

    CD Track List

    01
    Greetings in the Lulamoogi/Lugwere dialect of the Lutenga language of Busoga, eastern Uganda, “spoken” by members of the Bakuseka Majja Women’s Group in Kibaale village, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    02 & 03
    Filulu performance by Charles Bungu in Nyanhugi village, Sukumaland, Tanzania, 1999. Used by permission of Charles Bungu.
    04
    Excerpt of Bugóbogóbo by the Bana Sesilia Group of the Bujora Cultural Centre, Bujora, Tanzania, 1999. Used by permission of Charles Mahenda, Bujora Cultural Center.
    05
    “Muliranwa” [“My Neighbor”], embaire performance by the Ekidha Tobana Kabaliga Group in Bugwere village, Uganda 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    06
    Excerpt, Chakacha, performed by the Horizon Players Group and the Choir from the Muslim Secondary School, Kisumu, Western Kenya. Used by permission of Lawrence Chiteri.
    07
    Excerpt illustrating the processional from the church at Bujora, Sukumaland, down the mountain to the Bulabo ceremonial stadium in Kisesa, 1999. Used by permission of Gregory Barz.
    08
    An example of wigaashe recorded at the Bulabo competition, 1999. Used by permission of Charles Mahenda, Bujora Cultural Center.
    09
    “Mahali ni Pazuri” [“This Place is Beautiful”], second verse, sung at a Mashindano ya Kwaya held at Kariakoo Lutheran Church in Dar es Salaam, 1993. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella, Lutheran Choir Community Leader.
    10
    Wimbo wa KiHehe, a KiHehe melody, sung by the choir of the Mikocheni Anglican Church at a Mashindano ya Kwaya held at St. Alban’s Anglican Church, Dar es Salaam, 1993. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella, Lutheran Choir Community Leader.
    11
    “Sikieni Neno” [“Hear the Word”], a WaGogo melody, sung by the Kwaya ya Vijana of Kariakoo Lutheran Church, Dar es Salaam, 1993. Used by permission of Erneza Madeghe, Kariakoo, Lutheran church.
    12
    Author’s interview with Gideon Mdegella, mwalimu, Kwaya ya Upendo, Azania Front Lutheran Cathedral, Dar es Salaam, 1994. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella.
    13
    ” ‘Sikiliza,’ Asema Bwana, ” Gideon Mdegella, composer and conductor, recording of a rehearsal of Kwaya ya Upendo, Azania Front Lutheran Cathedral, Dar es Salaam, 1994. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella.
    14
    Tuning demonstration on the endere (flute), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    15
    “Oo samba bambalele,” a demonstration on the short endere (flute), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    16
    Demonstration on the long endere (flute), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    17
    Demonstration of the scale used on the endingidi (tubefiddle), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    18
    Endingidi (tubefiddle) medley, performed by Centurio Balikoowa and Gregory Barz (“Adimudong’,” “Twalamatagange,” and a piece from the Central Region), 1999. Used by permission of Centurio
    Balikoowa and Gregory Barz.
    19
    Demonstration of elaboration on the endingidi (tubefiddle), performed by Centurio Balikoowa,  1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    20
    Demonstration of the tuning of the ntongooli (bowl lyre), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    21
    Demonstration of the ntongooli (bowl lyre), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    22
    Demonstration of tuning of “Twalamatagange” on ntongooli (bowl lyre) and endingidi, performed by Centurio Balikoowa and Kiria Moses, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    23
    Medley: Performance of the Ugandan National Anthem, “Oluyimba Lwe’eggwanga (Ebbona lya Afirika)” [“The Pearl of Africa”], the Buganda Anthem, “Ekitiibwa kya Buganda” [“The Pride of Buganda”], and the Africa House Anthem, “Marching Along,” per¬formed by students at Makerere College School, 2002. Used by per¬mission of Kitogo George Ndugwa, leader.
    24
    Demonstration of endingidi playing, performed by Kiria Moses, endingidi and voice, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa (for Kiria Moses).
    25
    Blair String Quartet demonstrates the timbre of endingidi in “Mu Kkubo Ery “Omusaalaba.” Used by permission of Mark Wait, Blair School of Music.
    26
    Demonstration of the baakisimba drum, the rhythm associated with Baakisimba, performed by Gregory Barz, 1999. Used by permission of Gregory Barz.
    27
    Blair String Quartet demonstrates the drumming in “Mu Kkubo Ery ‘Omusaalaba.” Used by permission of Mark Wait, Blair School of Music.
    28
    Demonstration of Omunazi, Omwawuzi, and Omukonezi parts played by Kiria Moses, Waiswa, and Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa (for himself, Waiswa, and Kiria Moses).
    29
    The Blair String Quartet demonstrates interlocking parts in “Mu Kkubo Ery ‘Omusaalaba.” Used by permission of Mark Wait, Blair School of Music.
    30
    Andericus Apondi, nyatiti, demonstrates the Benga guitar style on nyatiti, Kisumu, Kenya. Used by permission of Peter Nyamenya, Kisumu Museum, National Museums of Kenya.
    31
    “Jo Piny,” performed by Kabila Klan, Kisumu, Kenya. Used by permission of Lawrence Oyuga, director.
    32
    “Kumbaya,” performed by the congregation of the Power of Jesus Around the World Church, Kisumu, Kenya. Used by permission of Peter Nyamenya, Kisumu Museum, National Museums of Kenya.
    33
    Foreign terms introduced in this volume, pronounced by the author.

  • Graebner, Werner:
    Urbanes Leben in Afrika – dargestellt an ausgewählten
    volkstümlichen Texten des swahilisprachigen Raums.
    M.A. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 1984. 156 p.

    INHALT

    1 Einführung 2
    1. Urbane Anthropologie in Afrika 2
    2. Übersicht: Volkstümliche oder populäre Musik? 16

    2 “Urbane” afrikanische Musik in der musikethnologischen Litteratur 19

    3 Geschichte der populären Musik in Ostafrika 26
    1. Die Zeit bis zum Zweiten Weltkrieg: ‘Beni’ 26
    2. Die Zeit nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg 30
    2.1 Kenya 30
    2.2 Tanganyika / Tanzania 36

    4 Die heutigen Situation populärer Musik in Kenya und Tanzania 39
    1. Populäre Musik in Dar-es-Salaam heute 39
    2. Populäre Musik in Nairobi und Kenya heute 43
    3. Die soziale Stellung des populären Musikers 49
    4. Das Verhältnis von Musik und Tanz 56

    5 Die Texte swahilisprachiger Populärmusik 59
    1. Populärmusik als orale Litteratur 59
    2. Theoretische und methodische Überlegungen 65
    3. Übersicht über die Thematiken populärer Swahililieder 68
    4.1 Das Thema “Stadt” in den Liedern 71
    4.2 Weitere Aspekte der Lieder 78

    6 Schluss 90

    7 Appendix A
    Auswahlverfahren und Diskographie 94

    8 Appendix B
    Texte 103

    9 Bibliographie 142

  • Gunderson, Frank & Gregory Barz (eds.):
    Mashindano! Competitive Music Performance in East Africa.
    Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, 2000. 468 p.
    ISBN 9976-973-829

    CONTENTS

    Map of East Africa viii
    Contributors ix

    Terence Ranger
    Foreword  1

    Part 1: Introduction

    1. Frank Gunderson
        “Kifungua Kinywa” or Opening the Contest with Chai 7

    Part 2: Significant Rivals and Scandals

    2. Kelly M. Askew
        Following in the Tracks of Beni: The Diffusion of the Tanga Taarab Tradition 21
    3. Janet Topp Fargion
        “Hot Kabisa!” The Mpasho Phenomenon and Taarab in Zanzibar 39
    4. Mwenda Ntarangwi
        Malumbano or Matukano: Competition, Confrontation, and (De)
        Construction of Masculinity in the Taarab of Maulidi and Bhalo 55
    5. Siri Lange
        Muungano and TOT: Rivals on the Urban Cultural Scene 67
    6. Joseph L. Mbele
        Gindu Nkima: A Sukuma Heroine 87

    Part 3: Rites of Passage

    7. Peter Pels
        Kizungu Rhythms: Luguru Christianity as Ngoma 101
    8. Laura Fair
        Identity, Difference, and Dance:
        Female Initiation in Zanzibar, 1890 to 1930 143

    Part 4: Community and Identity

     9. E. Kezilahabi
         Ngoma Competitions in Traditional Bakerebe Society 175
    10. James Ellison
          Competitive Dance and Social Identity:
          Converging Histories in Southwest Tanzania 199
    11. Frowin Paul Nyoni
          The Social Significance of Mganda-wa-Kinkachi Dance
          Contests Among the Matengo 233
    12. Elise Johansen
          Makonde Mask Dance: Performing Identity 255
    13. Peter Cooke & Okaka Opio Dokotum
          Ngoma Competitions in Northern Uganda 271
    14. Peter Jan Haas & Thomas Gesthuizen
          Ndani ya Bongo: KiSwahili Rap Keeping it Real 279
    15. Werner Graebner
          Ngoma ya Ukae: Competition Social Structure in Tanzanian
          Dance Music Songs 295

    Part 5: Historical Imaginings

    16. Lisa Gilman
          Putting Colonialism into Perspective: Cultural History and
          the Case of Malipenga Ngoma in Malawi 319
    17. Rebecca Gearhart
          Rama Maulidi: A Competitive Ritual Ngoma in Lamu 347
    18. Stephen Hill
          Mchezo Umelala [“The Dance has Slept”]: Competition,
          Modernity, and Economics in Umatengo, Tanzania 367
    19. Gregory F. Barz
          Politics of Remembering: Performing History(-ies) in Youth
          Kwaya Competitions in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania 379
    20. Frank Gunderson
          Witchcraft, Witcraft and Musical Warfare: The Rise of the Bagiika-
          Bagaalu Music Competitions in Sukumaland, Tanzania 407

    Part 6: Epilogue

    21. Gregory F. Barz
          Tamati: Music Competition and Community Formation 421

    Works Cited 429
    Index 447

  • Njogu, Kimani & Hervé Maupeu (eds.):
    Songs and Politics in Eastern Africa.
    Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers /
    Nairobi: l’Institute francais de recherche en Afrique (IFRA), 2007. 401 p.
    ISBN 978-9987-449-42-5

    CONTENTS

    Foreword xi

    1
    Kimani Njogu
    Religious Versification:
    From Depoliticisation to Repoliticisation
    1

    2
    Hervé Maupeu
    L’intellectuel populaire et l’imaginaire politique :
    Le cas de Joseph Kamaru
    23
    Kamaru, un prophète kikuyu chrétien 28
    La religion prophétique comme cadre de compréhension
    du politique 32
    – Une pédagogie du changement 32
    – Une théorie de la causalité 35
    Kamaru et le renouveau du nationalisme kikuyu 36
    – Un leader et pas un despote 37
    – Les elections comme mode populaire d’action politique 40
    – Les femmes et le nationalisme kikuyu contemporain 42
    – Conclusion : Kamaru et les autres mises en scène kikuyu 
       de la nation 45

    3
    Michael W. Mwaũra
    Artistic Discourse and Gender Politics in the
    Gĩkũyũ Popular Song
    49
    Approach and Method 50
    Roots in Patriarchy of Popular Song Expression 51
    Patriarchal Narrations 53
    Entry of the Queen: The Woman Talks back 62
    Conclusion 70

    4
    Mwangi  P. Mũhoro
    The Poetics of Gĩkũyũ mwomboko: Narrative as a Technique
    in HIV-AIDS Awareness Campaign in Rural Kenya
    73
    Introduction 73
    Socio-historical Origins of Mwomboko Poetry 74
    Performance of Mwomboko Poetry 77
    Arrangement and Dance Movements in Mwomboko 78
    Music and Entertainment in Response to HIV-Aids Awareness 82
    The Language of Mwomboko Singers 84
    Conclusion 92

    5
    Aurélia Ferrari
    Hip-Hop in Nairobi: Recognition of an International Movement and the Main Means of Expression for the Urban Youth in Poor Residential Areas 107
    From Street “Free Style”, to the Studio, to the Stage:
    The Case of Kalamashaka and Mau Mau Camp 110
    – The Beginning of Hip-Hop in Nairobi 110
    – Different Influences 111
    – The Beginning of Success 112
    – Problems Encountered 115
    – The Rappers’ Hopes 116
    Lyrics: The Division between Militant and Non-Militant Rap 117
    – Language of Choice 117
    – Major Themes Covered 118
    – Conclusion 124

    6
    Musambayi Katumanga
    Folk Poetry as a Weapon of Struggle: An Analysis of the
    Chaka Mchaka Resistance Songs of the National Resistance
    Movement/Army of Uganda
    129
    – Introduction 179
    Resistance Process and Mobilisation 130
    – Mosaic Types 138
    – Fixed Line Folklores 142
    – Native Poetics 147

    7
    Maina wa Mũtonya
    Ethnic Identity and Stereotypes in Popular Music:
    Mugiithi Performance in Kenya
    157
    – Introduction  157
    Music and Identity 162
    Stereotypes and Ethnic Identity 164
    Cultural Nights 170
    Mau Mau Lyrics 170
    Conclusion 172

    8
    Adams Oloo
    Song and Politics: The Case of D. Owino Misiani 177
    – Introduction 177
    Luo Music and the Kenyan Political Scene 181
    Owino Misiani 182
    Beyond Kenya: Misiani on Governance in Africa 183
    Analysing the Kenyan Political Scene through Music 185
    Change of Tactic:
    From Controversy to Support for the Government 192
    Return to Controversy193
    Conclusion 198

    9
    Bantu Mwaura
    Orature of Combat: Cultural Aesthetics of Song as
    Political Action in the Performance of the Mau Mau Songs
    201
    The Aesthetics of Gĩkũyũ Orature in the Mau Mau Songs 204
    Song as Political Action 216
    Song as Orature of Combat 220

    10
    Herbert F. Makoye
    Resistance and Performance Dynamics: The Case of
    Busungusungu Vigilantes’ Dance of the Sukuma of Tanzania
    225
    – Introduction 225
    The Sukuma and Sungusungu 226
    Dance and Song as a Means of Communication 228
    Conclusion240

    11
    Frowin Paul Nyoni
    Music and Politics in Tanzania:
    A Case Study of Nyota-wa-Cigogo
    241
    – Introduction 241
    Music forms in Tanzania 247
    – Kwaya 242
    – Taarab 243
    – Jazz-band 244
    – Dance 245
    – Ngonjera 246
    Historical Overview of Music and Politics in Tanzania 246
    – The Early Days of Independence 246
    – The Arusha Declaration 248
    – Party Supremacy and its Control over the Arts 249
    – Democratisation process (multiparty political system) 252
    Case Study: Nyota-wa-Cigogo 253
    Nyota-wa-Cigogo: Performance 261
    Conclusion 270

    12
    Mwenda Ntarangwi
    Hip-Hop, Westernization and Gender in East Africa 273
    – Introduction 273
    The Emergence of Hip-Hop in East Africa 275
    Hip-Hop in East Africa: A New Penomenon or Old Tradition? 281
    Hip-Hop and Westernization 284
    Hip-Hop and Gendered Identities 290
    Conclusions 299

    13
    Rayya Timammy
    Thematising Election Politics in Swahli Epic:
    The Case of Mahmoud Abdulkadir
    303

    14
    Alice Bancet
    Formation of a Popular Music: Hip-Hop in Tanzania 315
    – Introduction 315
    – Hip-Hop: A Definition 316
    Globalisation of a Culture: The Case of Tanzanian Hip-Hop  318
    – From New York Ghettos to Dar es Salaam 318
    – Introduction of Hip-Hop in Tanzania, a Contemporary of Uwazi 322
    – Heavy Resistance to “Muziki ya kihuni” 324
    – From American Mimicry to the Original Creation of Rap 
       in Kiswahili 327
    – Initial Attempts to Promote Hip-Hop 330
    – Improved Media Coverage and Popularization of Hip-Hop 332
    – The Consecration of Kiswahili Rap – mapinduzi halisi ya
       Bongo Flava 334
    Confirmation of Hip-Hop with Political and Social Leanings 338
    – The Spokespeople for a Society in Crisis 339
    – Political and Civic Rap 346
    – Artistes’ Involvement in the Defense and Maintenance of
       Authentic Hip-Hop Rap 351
    Conclusion 352

    15
    Chantal  Logan
    The Enduring Power of Somali “Oral Political Poetry”:
    Songs and Poems of Peace in the Midst of Chaos
    355
    The Somali Crisis: A Political Milieu Favourable to the
    Spoken Word 357
    Oral Political Poetry: An Unbroken Continuum 361
    Peace Making and Poetry 365
    Women and Peace Poetry 368

    16
    Lupenga Mphande
    If you’re Ugly, Know how to Sing:
    Aesthetics of Resistance and Subversion
    377

  • Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
    Gender, Identity, and Performance.
    Understanding Swahili Cultural Realities through Song.
    Trenton, N.J.:  Africa World Press, Inc., 2003. 361 p.
    ISBN 0-86543-973-7

    CONTENTS

    Dedication v
    Acknowledgements vii
    Glossary ix
    Preface xiii

    Chapter One
    Fieldsite, Fieldwork, and the Ethnographer 1

    Chapter Two
    Swahili Identity in Historical Perspective 43

    Chapter Three
    Gender Ideals, Interpretations, and Practices 103

    Chapter Four
    Performing Taarab in Mombasa 147

    Chapter Five
    Cultural Constructions of Femininity 205

    Chapter Six
    Cultural Construction of Masculinity 251

    Chapter Seven
    Conclusions 291

    Appendix
    Biographies 313

    References Cited 323
    Index 357

  • Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
    East African Hip Hop.
    Youth Culture and Globalization.
    Urbana & Chicago, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2009. 158 p.
    ISBN 978-0-252-07653-4

    CONTENTS

    Preface vii
    Acknowledgments xiii

    1. Globalization and Youth Agency in East Africa 1

    2. Hip Hop and African Identity in Contemporary Globalization 20

    3. Move Over, Boys, the Girls Are Here: Hip Hop and Gendered Identities 44

    4. Economic Change and Political Deception 67

    5. Morality, Health, and the Politics of Sexuality in an Era of HIV / AIDS 93

    6. Staying True to the Cause: Hip Hop’s Enduring Social Role 115

    Appendix: Hip Hop Artistes 123

    Glossary 129
    Notes 131
    References 137
    Index 155

  • Ranger, T[erence] O.:
    Dance and Society in Eastern Africa 1890-1970. The Beni Ngoma.
    London: Heinemann, 1975. 176 p.
    ISBN 0-435-32979-0

    CONTENTS

    Preface vii
    Maps xi, xii, xiii

    Introduction 1

    1. The Origins of Beni 9

    2. Beni and the Great War for Civilization 1914-19 45

    3. Beni and the Towns of Eastern Africa between  the Wars 77

    4. Beni in the Diaspora between the Wars 106

    5. The End of Beni 141

    Conclusion 164

    Appendix
    The Role of Women in Dance Associations in Eastern Africa 167

    Index 171

  • Rizk, Mohamed El-Mohammady:
    Women in Taarab. The Performing Art in East Africa.
    Schriften zur Afrikanistik / Research in African Studies, Band 11.
    Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2007. 198 p.
    ISBN 978-3-631-53208-9

    CONTENTS

    Chapter 1 
    1.0 Introduction 13
    1.1 Aim and objective of the study 13
    1.2 Swahili poetry 14
    1.2.1 Various versions 16
    1.2.2 What is taarab? 17
    1.3 Research questions 21
    1.4 Swahili language 21
    1.5 Swahili people 22
    1.6 Zanzibar 23
        1.6.1 History of Zanzibar 25
        1.6.2 The advent of taarab 26
    1.7 Swahili culture 29
    1.8 Methodology 30
    1.8.1 Transcription 32
    1.8.2 Translation 32
    1.9 Taarab songs, folklore, cultural and literary 
          theories of orature 33
    1.10 Gender theories 34
    1.11 Approach 37

    Chapter 2 
    2.0 The cultural milieu of the songs 39
    2.1 The relativism and universalism theory in relation
          to taarab songs 39
    2.2 Metaphors and symbols referring to women in taarab 43
    2.3 The thematic scope 45
       2.3.1 The physical milieu 45
       2.3.2 The intellectual milieu 46
       2.3.3 The psychological milieu 48
    2.4 Sources of imagery in relation to relativism and universalism 49
       2.4.1 Imagery stemming from the Swahili environment 51
       2.4.2 Imagery quoted from the Holy Quran 51
       2.4.3 Imagery stemming from the Arabic culture 52
    2.5 Orality and scripturality: the distinction of taarab
           songs from other Swahili songs 52
       2.5.1 Songs sung before 1945 and their characteristics 55
       2.5.2 Songs sung after 1945 and their characteristics 61
    2.6 The distinction of taarab songs from other Swahili songs 63
       2.6.1 Drum songs (ngoma) 63
       2.6.2 Melodious music 65
          2.6.2.1 Muziki wa dansi ‘dance music’ known also
                       as “urban jazz” 65
          2.6.2.2 Taa-rap ‘rap music’ 65
          2.6.2.3 Kidumbak 67
          2.6.2.4 Taarab ya wanawake ‘women’s taarab’ 68
          2.6.2.5 Modern taarab 69
          2.6.2.6 Ideal taarab 69

    Chapter 3
    3.0 The analysis 71
    3.1 Performance 71
        3.1.1 The singer 72
        3.1.2 The chorus 74
        3.1.3 The audience 75
        3.1.4 Musical accompaniment 75
        3.1.5 The singer/audience divide 75
    3.2 The linguistic aspect of the lyrics 76
       3.2.1 Simplicity/transparency and obscurity/
                opacity in taarab lyrics 77
          3.2.2.1 Prosody 79
          3.2.2.2 Morphological and syntactical features 
                      of taarab lyrics 80
       3.2.3 Figures of speech etc. 85
          3.2.3.1 Metaphor 86
          3.2.3.2 Simile 87
          3.2.3.3 Personification 88
          3.2.3.4 Anaphora 88
          3.2.3.5 Parallelism 89
          3.2.3.6 Alliteration 89
       3.2.4 The social and cultural world and the creation 
                 of meanings 90
    3.3 Women participation in taarab 92
       3.3.1 Women as composers 92
       3.3.2 Women as singers 93
       3.3.3 Women as audience 95
    3.4 Women in taarab lyrics 95
       3.4.1 Imagery and implications 95
          3.4.1.1 Physical description 96
          3.4.1.2 Love and marriage 98
       3.4.2 The role of imagery to underscore femininity 101
          3.4.2.1 Women as flowers 103
          3.4.2.2 Women as fruits 104
          3.4.2.3 Women as birds 105
          3.4.2.4 Women as heavenly bodies 107
          3.4.2.5 Women as Satans 108

    Chapter 4
    4.0 Conclusion 111
    4.1 The concept of taarab as a performing art 111
    4.2 The concept of taarab as local music 111
    4.3 The concept of taarab as world music 112
    4.4 The concept of taarab as unstable “art form” 112
    4.5 “Relativism” and “Universalism” in relation to
           Swahili taarab lyrics 113
    4.6 Gender aspects, gender relation, negotiation of
           gender positions 113
    4.7 Marked linguistic features/aspects emanating from
           the taarab lyrics 114

    Bibliography 117

    Appendix I (Songs sung before 1945) 125
    Appendix II (Songs sung after 1945) 141

  • Rosenberg, Aaron Louis:
    Canciones populares y literatura de África oriental – Vínculos artísticos e identitarios.
    México, D.F.: El Colegio de México. Centro de Estudios de Asia y Africa, 2013. 516 p.
    ISBN 978-6074-624-49-6

    ÍNDICE

    Portada (pp. 1-6)
    Portadillas y página legal

    Índice (pp. 7-8)
    Agradecimientos (pp. 9-10)

    Introducción (pp. 11-26)
    La canción como arte oral
    Metodologia
    Estructura del libro
    Conclusión

    I. Las canciones populares de África oriental en contextos locales y mundiales: formas de arte verbal en estados de transformación (pp. 27-74)
    La canción como arte oral
    Arte oral y critica literaturia
    El arte oral y colonianismo

    II. Estrategias y éxitos en el arte verbal: dos artífices de la palabra de áfrica oriental y sus obras formativas (pp. 75-144)
    Consideraciones teóricas
    Forma
    Tema
    Conclusión

    III. La literatura de la canción: “Joka” de Kantai y Wainaina como multitexto sincrético (pp. 145-176)
    Descripciones biográficas
    Colaboración
    Contenido
    Intención
    Divergencias en los textos

    IV. Ubicación lingüística y discurso integrador en el arte verbal de África oriental (pp. 177-238)
    Ngugi wa Thiong’o y la lengua
    Obras en las lenguas coloniales oficiales
    La froncophonie
    El arte verbal en Zambia
    Tanzania y Kenia
    Uganda
    Formas de swahili
    Chikabanga
    La lengua y la autenticidad

    V. La voz cambiante de la expresión verbal de África oriental (pp. 239-286)
    Swahili recargado
    La Républica Democratica del Congo
    Zambia
    Uganda

    VI. Temas paradigmáticos en el arte verbal de África oriental (pp. 287-344)
    Tema motivo
    Crítica social
    Viajes
    Protesta política
    Críticas a la religión
    Discriminación sexual
    Conclusión

    VII. Forma y estética en la canción popular de África oriental (pp. 345-386)
    Atributos narrativos
    Diversidad del arte oral
    Narrativa popular
    Telo Mony ?
    Orimungole

    Conclusión (pp. 387-392)

    Apéndice: textos de las canciones (pp. 393-482)
    Capitulo I
    Capitulo II
    Capitulo IV
    Capitulo V
    Capitulo VI

    Bibliografía (pp. 483-516)
    Obras principals
    Obras secundarias

    Sobre del autor (pp. 517-518)

  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

    CONTENTS

    Replace “English template – click Clone & Edit” (the popup name) with the common name for the Word contents file and the jpg file  (e.g. “mortaigne1997”)

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    Copy “Shortcode” including square brackets e.g. Índice and inset and replace it for “Contents” in the page with book list file.

  • Johnson, John William:
    ‘Heelloy’. Modern Poetry and Songs of the Somalis.
    London: HAAN Publishing, 1998. xxiii & 241 p.
    ISBN 978-1-874-20981-2

    CONTENTS

    Foreword to the first edition by B. W. Andrzejewski ix
    Foreword to the 1996 edition by Abdilahi Qarshi xi
    Preface to the first edition xv
    Preface to the 1996 edition xxiii

    1. Introduction
    The social context 1
    The Nature of Traditional Pastoralist Poetry 12
    The Historical Development of Modern Oral Poetry 17

    2. The Family of Miniature Genres
    The Nature of the Family of Miniature Genres 27
    The Poetry of the Miniature Family 32

    3. The emergence of the Belwo
    The Historical Background 49
    The Belwo is Born 53
    The Poetry of the Belwo 59

    4. The Heello: Period One
    The Metamorphosis: Belwo to Heello A 75
    The Modem Poem: Heello A to Heello B 82

    5. The Heello: Period Two
    The Historical Background 95
    The Poetry of the Second Period 103

    6. The Heello: Period Three
    The Historical Background 117
    The Poetry of the Third Period 146

    7. Characteristics of the Heello: All Periods
    Themes Common to All Periods 175
    Structural Characteristics and
    Development Common to All Periods 190
    The Impact of Media on Modern Poetry 208

    8. Conclusion
    The Inheritance of the Heello 215
    Forces Behind the Success and Development of Modern Poetry 216

  • Rosenberg, Aaron Louis:
    Canciones populares y literatura de África oriental – Vínculos artísticos e identitarios.
    México, D.F.: El Colegio de México. Centro de Estudios de Asia y Africa, 2013. 516 p.
    ISBN 978-6074-624-49-6

    ÍNDICE

    Portada (pp. 1-6)
    Portadillas y página legal

    Índice (pp. 7-8)
    Agradecimientos (pp. 9-10)

    Introducción (pp. 11-26)
    La canción como arte oral
    Metodologia
    Estructura del libro
    Conclusión

    I. Las canciones populares de África oriental en contextos locales y mundiales: formas de arte verbal en estados de transformación (pp. 27-74)
    La canción como arte oral
    Arte oral y critica literaturia
    El arte oral y colonianismo

    II. Estrategias y éxitos en el arte verbal: dos artífices de la palabra de áfrica oriental y sus obras formativas (pp. 75-144)
    Consideraciones teóricas
    Forma
    Tema
    Conclusión

    III. La literatura de la canción: “Joka” de Kantai y Wainaina como multitexto sincrético (pp. 145-176)
    Descripciones biográficas
    Colaboración
    Contenido
    Intención
    Divergencias en los textos

    IV. Ubicación lingüística y discurso integrador en el arte verbal de África oriental (pp. 177-238)
    Ngugi wa Thiong’o y la lengua
    Obras en las lenguas coloniales oficiales
    La froncophonie
    El arte verbal en Zambia
    Tanzania y Kenia
    Uganda
    Formas de swahili
    Chikabanga
    La lengua y la autenticidad

    V. La voz cambiante de la expresión verbal de África oriental (pp. 239-286)
    Swahili recargado
    La Républica Democratica del Congo
    Zambia
    Uganda

    VI. Temas paradigmáticos en el arte verbal de África oriental (pp. 287-344)
    Tema motivo
    Crítica social
    Viajes
    Protesta política
    Críticas a la religión
    Discriminación sexual
    Conclusión

    VII. Forma y estética en la canción popular de África oriental (pp. 345-386)
    Atributos narrativos
    Diversidad del arte oral
    Narrativa popular
    Telo Mony ?
    Orimungole

    Conclusión (pp. 387-392)

    Apéndice: textos de las canciones (pp. 393-482)
    Capitulo I
    Capitulo II
    Capitulo IV
    Capitulo V
    Capitulo VI

    Bibliografía (pp. 483-516)
    Obras principals
    Obras secundarias

    Sobre del autor (pp. 517-518)

  • Rizk, Mohamed El-Mohammady:
    Women in Taarab. The Performing Art in East Africa.
    Schriften zur Afrikanistik / Research in African Studies, Band 11.
    Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2007. 198 p.
    ISBN 978-3-631-53208-9

    CONTENTS

    Chapter 1 
    1.0 Introduction 13
    1.1 Aim and objective of the study 13
    1.2 Swahili poetry 14
    1.2.1 Various versions 16
    1.2.2 What is taarab? 17
    1.3 Research questions 21
    1.4 Swahili language 21
    1.5 Swahili people 22
    1.6 Zanzibar 23
        1.6.1 History of Zanzibar 25
        1.6.2 The advent of taarab 26
    1.7 Swahili culture 29
    1.8 Methodology 30
    1.8.1 Transcription 32
    1.8.2 Translation 32
    1.9 Taarab songs, folklore, cultural and literary 
          theories of orature 33
    1.10 Gender theories 34
    1.11 Approach 37

    Chapter 2 
    2.0 The cultural milieu of the songs 39
    2.1 The relativism and universalism theory in relation
          to taarab songs 39
    2.2 Metaphors and symbols referring to women in taarab 43
    2.3 The thematic scope 45
       2.3.1 The physical milieu 45
       2.3.2 The intellectual milieu 46
       2.3.3 The psychological milieu 48
    2.4 Sources of imagery in relation to relativism and universalism 49
       2.4.1 Imagery stemming from the Swahili environment 51
       2.4.2 Imagery quoted from the Holy Quran 51
       2.4.3 Imagery stemming from the Arabic culture 52
    2.5 Orality and scripturality: the distinction of taarab
           songs from other Swahili songs 52
       2.5.1 Songs sung before 1945 and their characteristics 55
       2.5.2 Songs sung after 1945 and their characteristics 61
    2.6 The distinction of taarab songs from other Swahili songs 63
       2.6.1 Drum songs (ngoma) 63
       2.6.2 Melodious music 65
          2.6.2.1 Muziki wa dansi ‘dance music’ known also
                       as “urban jazz” 65
          2.6.2.2 Taa-rap ‘rap music’ 65
          2.6.2.3 Kidumbak 67
          2.6.2.4 Taarab ya wanawake ‘women’s taarab’ 68
          2.6.2.5 Modern taarab 69
          2.6.2.6 Ideal taarab 69

    Chapter 3
    3.0 The analysis 71
    3.1 Performance 71
        3.1.1 The singer 72
        3.1.2 The chorus 74
        3.1.3 The audience 75
        3.1.4 Musical accompaniment 75
        3.1.5 The singer/audience divide 75
    3.2 The linguistic aspect of the lyrics 76
       3.2.1 Simplicity/transparency and obscurity/
                opacity in taarab lyrics 77
          3.2.2.1 Prosody 79
          3.2.2.2 Morphological and syntactical features 
                      of taarab lyrics 80
       3.2.3 Figures of speech etc. 85
          3.2.3.1 Metaphor 86
          3.2.3.2 Simile 87
          3.2.3.3 Personification 88
          3.2.3.4 Anaphora 88
          3.2.3.5 Parallelism 89
          3.2.3.6 Alliteration 89
       3.2.4 The social and cultural world and the creation 
                 of meanings 90
    3.3 Women participation in taarab 92
       3.3.1 Women as composers 92
       3.3.2 Women as singers 93
       3.3.3 Women as audience 95
    3.4 Women in taarab lyrics 95
       3.4.1 Imagery and implications 95
          3.4.1.1 Physical description 96
          3.4.1.2 Love and marriage 98
       3.4.2 The role of imagery to underscore femininity 101
          3.4.2.1 Women as flowers 103
          3.4.2.2 Women as fruits 104
          3.4.2.3 Women as birds 105
          3.4.2.4 Women as heavenly bodies 107
          3.4.2.5 Women as Satans 108

    Chapter 4
    4.0 Conclusion 111
    4.1 The concept of taarab as a performing art 111
    4.2 The concept of taarab as local music 111
    4.3 The concept of taarab as world music 112
    4.4 The concept of taarab as unstable “art form” 112
    4.5 “Relativism” and “Universalism” in relation to
           Swahili taarab lyrics 113
    4.6 Gender aspects, gender relation, negotiation of
           gender positions 113
    4.7 Marked linguistic features/aspects emanating from
           the taarab lyrics 114

    Bibliography 117

    Appendix I (Songs sung before 1945) 125
    Appendix II (Songs sung after 1945) 141

  • Ranger, T[erence] O.:
    Dance and Society in Eastern Africa 1890-1970. The Beni Ngoma.
    London: Heinemann, 1975. 176 p.
    ISBN 0-435-32979-0

    CONTENTS

    Preface vii
    Maps xi, xii, xiii

    Introduction 1

    1. The Origins of Beni 9

    2. Beni and the Great War for Civilization 1914-19 45

    3. Beni and the Towns of Eastern Africa between  the Wars 77

    4. Beni in the Diaspora between the Wars 106

    5. The End of Beni 141

    Conclusion 164

    Appendix
    The Role of Women in Dance Associations in Eastern Africa 167

    Index 171

  • Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
    East African Hip Hop.
    Youth Culture and Globalization.
    Urbana & Chicago, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2009. 158 p.
    ISBN 978-0-252-07653-4

    CONTENTS

    Preface vii
    Acknowledgments xiii

    1. Globalization and Youth Agency in East Africa 1

    2. Hip Hop and African Identity in Contemporary Globalization 20

    3. Move Over, Boys, the Girls Are Here: Hip Hop and Gendered Identities 44

    4. Economic Change and Political Deception 67

    5. Morality, Health, and the Politics of Sexuality in an Era of HIV / AIDS 93

    6. Staying True to the Cause: Hip Hop’s Enduring Social Role 115

    Appendix: Hip Hop Artistes 123

    Glossary 129
    Notes 131
    References 137
    Index 155

  • Ntarangwi, Mwenda:
    Gender, Identity, and Performance.
    Understanding Swahili Cultural Realities through Song.
    Trenton, N.J.:  Africa World Press, Inc., 2003. 361 p.
    ISBN 0-86543-973-7

    CONTENTS

    Dedication v
    Acknowledgements vii
    Glossary ix
    Preface xiii

    Chapter One
    Fieldsite, Fieldwork, and the Ethnographer 1

    Chapter Two
    Swahili Identity in Historical Perspective 43

    Chapter Three
    Gender Ideals, Interpretations, and Practices 103

    Chapter Four
    Performing Taarab in Mombasa 147

    Chapter Five
    Cultural Constructions of Femininity 205

    Chapter Six
    Cultural Construction of Masculinity 251

    Chapter Seven
    Conclusions 291

    Appendix
    Biographies 313

    References Cited 323
    Index 357

  • Njogu, Kimani & Hervé Maupeu (eds.):
    Songs and Politics in Eastern Africa.
    Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers /
    Nairobi: l’Institute francais de recherche en Afrique (IFRA), 2007. 401 p.
    ISBN 978-9987-449-42-5

    CONTENTS

    Foreword xi

    1
    Kimani Njogu
    Religious Versification:
    From Depoliticisation to Repoliticisation
    1

    2
    Hervé Maupeu
    L’intellectuel populaire et l’imaginaire politique :
    Le cas de Joseph Kamaru
    23
    Kamaru, un prophète kikuyu chrétien 28
    La religion prophétique comme cadre de compréhension
    du politique 32
    – Une pédagogie du changement 32
    – Une théorie de la causalité 35
    Kamaru et le renouveau du nationalisme kikuyu 36
    – Un leader et pas un despote 37
    – Les elections comme mode populaire d’action politique 40
    – Les femmes et le nationalisme kikuyu contemporain 42
    – Conclusion : Kamaru et les autres mises en scène kikuyu 
       de la nation 45

    3
    Michael W. Mwaũra
    Artistic Discourse and Gender Politics in the
    Gĩkũyũ Popular Song
    49
    Approach and Method 50
    Roots in Patriarchy of Popular Song Expression 51
    Patriarchal Narrations 53
    Entry of the Queen: The Woman Talks back 62
    Conclusion 70

    4
    Mwangi  P. Mũhoro
    The Poetics of Gĩkũyũ mwomboko: Narrative as a Technique
    in HIV-AIDS Awareness Campaign in Rural Kenya
    73
    Introduction 73
    Socio-historical Origins of Mwomboko Poetry 74
    Performance of Mwomboko Poetry 77
    Arrangement and Dance Movements in Mwomboko 78
    Music and Entertainment in Response to HIV-Aids Awareness 82
    The Language of Mwomboko Singers 84
    Conclusion 92

    5
    Aurélia Ferrari
    Hip-Hop in Nairobi: Recognition of an International Movement and the Main Means of Expression for the Urban Youth in Poor Residential Areas 107
    From Street “Free Style”, to the Studio, to the Stage:
    The Case of Kalamashaka and Mau Mau Camp 110
    – The Beginning of Hip-Hop in Nairobi 110
    – Different Influences 111
    – The Beginning of Success 112
    – Problems Encountered 115
    – The Rappers’ Hopes 116
    Lyrics: The Division between Militant and Non-Militant Rap 117
    – Language of Choice 117
    – Major Themes Covered 118
    – Conclusion 124

    6
    Musambayi Katumanga
    Folk Poetry as a Weapon of Struggle: An Analysis of the
    Chaka Mchaka Resistance Songs of the National Resistance
    Movement/Army of Uganda
    129
    – Introduction 179
    Resistance Process and Mobilisation 130
    – Mosaic Types 138
    – Fixed Line Folklores 142
    – Native Poetics 147

    7
    Maina wa Mũtonya
    Ethnic Identity and Stereotypes in Popular Music:
    Mugiithi Performance in Kenya
    157
    – Introduction  157
    Music and Identity 162
    Stereotypes and Ethnic Identity 164
    Cultural Nights 170
    Mau Mau Lyrics 170
    Conclusion 172

    8
    Adams Oloo
    Song and Politics: The Case of D. Owino Misiani 177
    – Introduction 177
    Luo Music and the Kenyan Political Scene 181
    Owino Misiani 182
    Beyond Kenya: Misiani on Governance in Africa 183
    Analysing the Kenyan Political Scene through Music 185
    Change of Tactic:
    From Controversy to Support for the Government 192
    Return to Controversy193
    Conclusion 198

    9
    Bantu Mwaura
    Orature of Combat: Cultural Aesthetics of Song as
    Political Action in the Performance of the Mau Mau Songs
    201
    The Aesthetics of Gĩkũyũ Orature in the Mau Mau Songs 204
    Song as Political Action 216
    Song as Orature of Combat 220

    10
    Herbert F. Makoye
    Resistance and Performance Dynamics: The Case of
    Busungusungu Vigilantes’ Dance of the Sukuma of Tanzania
    225
    – Introduction 225
    The Sukuma and Sungusungu 226
    Dance and Song as a Means of Communication 228
    Conclusion240

    11
    Frowin Paul Nyoni
    Music and Politics in Tanzania:
    A Case Study of Nyota-wa-Cigogo
    241
    – Introduction 241
    Music forms in Tanzania 247
    – Kwaya 242
    – Taarab 243
    – Jazz-band 244
    – Dance 245
    – Ngonjera 246
    Historical Overview of Music and Politics in Tanzania 246
    – The Early Days of Independence 246
    – The Arusha Declaration 248
    – Party Supremacy and its Control over the Arts 249
    – Democratisation process (multiparty political system) 252
    Case Study: Nyota-wa-Cigogo 253
    Nyota-wa-Cigogo: Performance 261
    Conclusion 270

    12
    Mwenda Ntarangwi
    Hip-Hop, Westernization and Gender in East Africa 273
    – Introduction 273
    The Emergence of Hip-Hop in East Africa 275
    Hip-Hop in East Africa: A New Penomenon or Old Tradition? 281
    Hip-Hop and Westernization 284
    Hip-Hop and Gendered Identities 290
    Conclusions 299

    13
    Rayya Timammy
    Thematising Election Politics in Swahli Epic:
    The Case of Mahmoud Abdulkadir
    303

    14
    Alice Bancet
    Formation of a Popular Music: Hip-Hop in Tanzania 315
    – Introduction 315
    – Hip-Hop: A Definition 316
    Globalisation of a Culture: The Case of Tanzanian Hip-Hop  318
    – From New York Ghettos to Dar es Salaam 318
    – Introduction of Hip-Hop in Tanzania, a Contemporary of Uwazi 322
    – Heavy Resistance to “Muziki ya kihuni” 324
    – From American Mimicry to the Original Creation of Rap 
       in Kiswahili 327
    – Initial Attempts to Promote Hip-Hop 330
    – Improved Media Coverage and Popularization of Hip-Hop 332
    – The Consecration of Kiswahili Rap – mapinduzi halisi ya
       Bongo Flava 334
    Confirmation of Hip-Hop with Political and Social Leanings 338
    – The Spokespeople for a Society in Crisis 339
    – Political and Civic Rap 346
    – Artistes’ Involvement in the Defense and Maintenance of
       Authentic Hip-Hop Rap 351
    Conclusion 352

    15
    Chantal  Logan
    The Enduring Power of Somali “Oral Political Poetry”:
    Songs and Poems of Peace in the Midst of Chaos
    355
    The Somali Crisis: A Political Milieu Favourable to the
    Spoken Word 357
    Oral Political Poetry: An Unbroken Continuum 361
    Peace Making and Poetry 365
    Women and Peace Poetry 368

    16
    Lupenga Mphande
    If you’re Ugly, Know how to Sing:
    Aesthetics of Resistance and Subversion
    377

  • Gunderson, Frank & Gregory Barz (eds.):
    Mashindano! Competitive Music Performance in East Africa.
    Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, 2000. 468 p.
    ISBN 9976-973-829

    CONTENTS

    Map of East Africa viii
    Contributors ix

    Terence Ranger
    Foreword  1

    Part 1: Introduction

    1. Frank Gunderson
        “Kifungua Kinywa” or Opening the Contest with Chai 7

    Part 2: Significant Rivals and Scandals

    2. Kelly M. Askew
        Following in the Tracks of Beni: The Diffusion of the Tanga Taarab Tradition 21
    3. Janet Topp Fargion
        “Hot Kabisa!” The Mpasho Phenomenon and Taarab in Zanzibar 39
    4. Mwenda Ntarangwi
        Malumbano or Matukano: Competition, Confrontation, and (De)
        Construction of Masculinity in the Taarab of Maulidi and Bhalo 55
    5. Siri Lange
        Muungano and TOT: Rivals on the Urban Cultural Scene 67
    6. Joseph L. Mbele
        Gindu Nkima: A Sukuma Heroine 87

    Part 3: Rites of Passage

    7. Peter Pels
        Kizungu Rhythms: Luguru Christianity as Ngoma 101
    8. Laura Fair
        Identity, Difference, and Dance:
        Female Initiation in Zanzibar, 1890 to 1930 143

    Part 4: Community and Identity

     9. E. Kezilahabi
         Ngoma Competitions in Traditional Bakerebe Society 175
    10. James Ellison
          Competitive Dance and Social Identity:
          Converging Histories in Southwest Tanzania 199
    11. Frowin Paul Nyoni
          The Social Significance of Mganda-wa-Kinkachi Dance
          Contests Among the Matengo 233
    12. Elise Johansen
          Makonde Mask Dance: Performing Identity 255
    13. Peter Cooke & Okaka Opio Dokotum
          Ngoma Competitions in Northern Uganda 271
    14. Peter Jan Haas & Thomas Gesthuizen
          Ndani ya Bongo: KiSwahili Rap Keeping it Real 279
    15. Werner Graebner
          Ngoma ya Ukae: Competition Social Structure in Tanzanian
          Dance Music Songs 295

    Part 5: Historical Imaginings

    16. Lisa Gilman
          Putting Colonialism into Perspective: Cultural History and
          the Case of Malipenga Ngoma in Malawi 319
    17. Rebecca Gearhart
          Rama Maulidi: A Competitive Ritual Ngoma in Lamu 347
    18. Stephen Hill
          Mchezo Umelala [“The Dance has Slept”]: Competition,
          Modernity, and Economics in Umatengo, Tanzania 367
    19. Gregory F. Barz
          Politics of Remembering: Performing History(-ies) in Youth
          Kwaya Competitions in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania 379
    20. Frank Gunderson
          Witchcraft, Witcraft and Musical Warfare: The Rise of the Bagiika-
          Bagaalu Music Competitions in Sukumaland, Tanzania 407

    Part 6: Epilogue

    21. Gregory F. Barz
          Tamati: Music Competition and Community Formation 421

    Works Cited 429
    Index 447

  • Graebner, Werner:
    Urbanes Leben in Afrika – dargestellt an ausgewählten
    volkstümlichen Texten des swahilisprachigen Raums.
    M.A. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 1984. 156 p.

    INHALT

    1 Einführung 2
    1. Urbane Anthropologie in Afrika 2
    2. Übersicht: Volkstümliche oder populäre Musik? 16

    2 “Urbane” afrikanische Musik in der musikethnologischen Litteratur 19

    3 Geschichte der populären Musik in Ostafrika 26
    1. Die Zeit bis zum Zweiten Weltkrieg: ‘Beni’ 26
    2. Die Zeit nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg 30
    2.1 Kenya 30
    2.2 Tanganyika / Tanzania 36

    4 Die heutigen Situation populärer Musik in Kenya und Tanzania 39
    1. Populäre Musik in Dar-es-Salaam heute 39
    2. Populäre Musik in Nairobi und Kenya heute 43
    3. Die soziale Stellung des populären Musikers 49
    4. Das Verhältnis von Musik und Tanz 56

    5 Die Texte swahilisprachiger Populärmusik 59
    1. Populärmusik als orale Litteratur 59
    2. Theoretische und methodische Überlegungen 65
    3. Übersicht über die Thematiken populärer Swahililieder 68
    4.1 Das Thema “Stadt” in den Liedern 71
    4.2 Weitere Aspekte der Lieder 78

    6 Schluss 90

    7 Appendix A
    Auswahlverfahren und Diskographie 94

    8 Appendix B
    Texte 103

    9 Bibliographie 142

  • Barz, Gregory:
    Music in East Africa.
    Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture.
    New York, N.Y. & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 139 p. & CD
    ISBN 978-0-19-514152-8

    CONTENTS

    Foreword xi
    Preface xiii
    CD Track List xvii

    1. Heating Up!
    East Africa 1
    Traditional Music Performance: The Example of Ngoma 4
    What is “Music” in East Africa? 5
    Greetings 8
    Conclusion 14

    2. Traditional Performances in Two Villages and a Town
    Introduction 16
    Case Study #1: Nyanhugi Village, Sukumaland, Tanzania 18
    Case Study #2: Bugwere Village, Busoga Region,
    Eastern Uganda 25
    Case Study #3: Kisumu Town, Western Kenya 33
    Musical Transcription 36
    Gender and Traditional Music Performance in East Africa 37
    Conclusion 38

    3. Fostering Social Cohesion: Competition and Traditional Musical Performance
    Introduction: Competition as Social Cohesion 40
    Case Study #1: Bulabo in Sukumaland, Tanzania 41
    Bufumu 47
    Bagaalu and Bagiika Dance Societies 47
    Samba 48
    Changes and Adaptation in Bulabo 49
    Case Study #2: Choir Competitions in Dar es Salaam 52
    Vignette 1: The Initial Evangelical Encounter 53
    Vignette 2: The Emergence of Tanzanian Voices 55
    Vignette 3: A Postcolonial Moment 56
    Conclusion 58

    4. Individuals in East African Musical Worlds:
    Gideon Mdegella and Centurio Balikoowa

    Introduction 59
    Vignette 1: Gideon Mdegella 62
    Vignette 2: Centurio Balikoowa 63
    Communities and Musical Specialists 63
    Gideon Mdegella: “Mwalimu” 64
    Mwalimu wa Kwaya: Ritual-Musical Specialists in the Tanzanian Lutheran Church 65
    “I Am Able to See Very Far, but I Am Unable to Reach There” 66
    Mdegella and “First-Class Music” 75
    Centurio Balikoowa 75
    Background 76
    Musical Instruments 78
    Endere (Flute) 78
    Endingidi (Tubefiddle)   81
    Construction of the Endingidi 82
    Ntongooli (Bowl Lyre) 84
    Personal History 86
    Conclusion 88

    5. Situating Traditional Music within Modernity
    Introduction 89
    Vignette: Anthems and Identity 90
    Case Study #1: Mu Kkubo Ery ‘Omusaalaba 101
    Basic Tenets of Kiganda Traditional Music 102
    Issue of Timbre 102
    Drumming 104
    Issue of Interlocking Patterns 106
    Case Study #2: “The Roots of Benga” 108
    D. O. Misiani, the “King” of Benga 111
    Conclusion: Popular versus Traditional – “Modernity Happened!” 114

    6. Cooling Down!
    Introduction 118
    Traditional Music and the Interrelation of the Arts in East Africa 118

    Glossary 124
    Resources 126
    Index 137

    CD Track List

    01
    Greetings in the Lulamoogi/Lugwere dialect of the Lutenga language of Busoga, eastern Uganda, “spoken” by members of the Bakuseka Majja Women’s Group in Kibaale village, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    02 & 03
    Filulu performance by Charles Bungu in Nyanhugi village, Sukumaland, Tanzania, 1999. Used by permission of Charles Bungu.
    04
    Excerpt of Bugóbogóbo by the Bana Sesilia Group of the Bujora Cultural Centre, Bujora, Tanzania, 1999. Used by permission of Charles Mahenda, Bujora Cultural Center.
    05
    “Muliranwa” [“My Neighbor”], embaire performance by the Ekidha Tobana Kabaliga Group in Bugwere village, Uganda 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    06
    Excerpt, Chakacha, performed by the Horizon Players Group and the Choir from the Muslim Secondary School, Kisumu, Western Kenya. Used by permission of Lawrence Chiteri.
    07
    Excerpt illustrating the processional from the church at Bujora, Sukumaland, down the mountain to the Bulabo ceremonial stadium in Kisesa, 1999. Used by permission of Gregory Barz.
    08
    An example of wigaashe recorded at the Bulabo competition, 1999. Used by permission of Charles Mahenda, Bujora Cultural Center.
    09
    “Mahali ni Pazuri” [“This Place is Beautiful”], second verse, sung at a Mashindano ya Kwaya held at Kariakoo Lutheran Church in Dar es Salaam, 1993. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella, Lutheran Choir Community Leader.
    10
    Wimbo wa KiHehe, a KiHehe melody, sung by the choir of the Mikocheni Anglican Church at a Mashindano ya Kwaya held at St. Alban’s Anglican Church, Dar es Salaam, 1993. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella, Lutheran Choir Community Leader.
    11
    “Sikieni Neno” [“Hear the Word”], a WaGogo melody, sung by the Kwaya ya Vijana of Kariakoo Lutheran Church, Dar es Salaam, 1993. Used by permission of Erneza Madeghe, Kariakoo, Lutheran church.
    12
    Author’s interview with Gideon Mdegella, mwalimu, Kwaya ya Upendo, Azania Front Lutheran Cathedral, Dar es Salaam, 1994. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella.
    13
    ” ‘Sikiliza,’ Asema Bwana, ” Gideon Mdegella, composer and conductor, recording of a rehearsal of Kwaya ya Upendo, Azania Front Lutheran Cathedral, Dar es Salaam, 1994. Used by permission of Gideon Mdegella.
    14
    Tuning demonstration on the endere (flute), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    15
    “Oo samba bambalele,” a demonstration on the short endere (flute), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    16
    Demonstration on the long endere (flute), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    17
    Demonstration of the scale used on the endingidi (tubefiddle), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    18
    Endingidi (tubefiddle) medley, performed by Centurio Balikoowa and Gregory Barz (“Adimudong’,” “Twalamatagange,” and a piece from the Central Region), 1999. Used by permission of Centurio
    Balikoowa and Gregory Barz.
    19
    Demonstration of elaboration on the endingidi (tubefiddle), performed by Centurio Balikoowa,  1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    20
    Demonstration of the tuning of the ntongooli (bowl lyre), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    21
    Demonstration of the ntongooli (bowl lyre), performed by Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    22
    Demonstration of tuning of “Twalamatagange” on ntongooli (bowl lyre) and endingidi, performed by Centurio Balikoowa and Kiria Moses, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa.
    23
    Medley: Performance of the Ugandan National Anthem, “Oluyimba Lwe’eggwanga (Ebbona lya Afirika)” [“The Pearl of Africa”], the Buganda Anthem, “Ekitiibwa kya Buganda” [“The Pride of Buganda”], and the Africa House Anthem, “Marching Along,” per¬formed by students at Makerere College School, 2002. Used by per¬mission of Kitogo George Ndugwa, leader.
    24
    Demonstration of endingidi playing, performed by Kiria Moses, endingidi and voice, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa (for Kiria Moses).
    25
    Blair String Quartet demonstrates the timbre of endingidi in “Mu Kkubo Ery “Omusaalaba.” Used by permission of Mark Wait, Blair School of Music.
    26
    Demonstration of the baakisimba drum, the rhythm associated with Baakisimba, performed by Gregory Barz, 1999. Used by permission of Gregory Barz.
    27
    Blair String Quartet demonstrates the drumming in “Mu Kkubo Ery ‘Omusaalaba.” Used by permission of Mark Wait, Blair School of Music.
    28
    Demonstration of Omunazi, Omwawuzi, and Omukonezi parts played by Kiria Moses, Waiswa, and Centurio Balikoowa, 1999. Used by permission of Centurio Balikoowa (for himself, Waiswa, and Kiria Moses).
    29
    The Blair String Quartet demonstrates interlocking parts in “Mu Kkubo Ery ‘Omusaalaba.” Used by permission of Mark Wait, Blair School of Music.
    30
    Andericus Apondi, nyatiti, demonstrates the Benga guitar style on nyatiti, Kisumu, Kenya. Used by permission of Peter Nyamenya, Kisumu Museum, National Museums of Kenya.
    31
    “Jo Piny,” performed by Kabila Klan, Kisumu, Kenya. Used by permission of Lawrence Oyuga, director.
    32
    “Kumbaya,” performed by the congregation of the Power of Jesus Around the World Church, Kisumu, Kenya. Used by permission of Peter Nyamenya, Kisumu Museum, National Museums of Kenya.
    33
    Foreign terms introduced in this volume, pronounced by the author.

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes. 2nd edition
    Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2015.  xii & 326 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8195-7539-5 (paper) 978-0-8195-7540-1 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Banning Eyre ix
    Introduction 1

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The Birth of Afrobeat 27
    2 Joe Mensah Remembers 41
    3 Fela in Ghana 49
    4 Stan Plange Remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is Born 67
    6 “JB” Talks about Fela 73
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 81
    8 The Black President 114
    9 Amsterdam and After 125

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 139
    11 Frank Talk about Fela 152
    12 Obiba Plays It Again 165
    13 Smart Binete Sorts It Out 174
    14 Anku Checks Out the Beat 178
    15 Nana Danso Orchestrates 183
    16 Some Early Afro-Fusion Pioneers 197
    17 Interview with Fela 204
    18 Afterthoughts and Updates 209
    19. Felabrations at Home and Abroad 238

    Chronology 259
    Notes 269
    Selected Bibliography 281
    Discography 285
    Appendix A: “Shuffering and Shmiling” Score 303
    Index 309

  • Erlmann, Veit (ed.):
    Populäre Musik in Afrika.

    Veröffentlichungen des Museum für Völkerkunde.
    Neue Folge 53. Abteilung Musikethnologie VIII.
    Berlin: Museum für Völkerkunde, 1991. 312 pp. & 2 CDs.
    ISBN 3-88609-213-5

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  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

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  • Sweeney, Philip:
    Directory of World Music. A Guide to Performers and their Music.
    With Contributions from Peter Gabriel, Andy Kershaw, Giberto Gil [&] Manu Dibango.
    London: Virgin Books, 1991. 262 p.
    Section Africa 1-81
    ISBN 0-86369-378-4

    sweeney1991CONTENTS

    AFRICA

    The North and West
    Introduction: Peter Gabriel 1
    Libya 3
    Tunisia 5
    Algeria 6
    Morocco 13
    Mauritania 16
    Senegal 17
    Mali 20
    Guinea 26
    Guinea-Bissau 29
    Cape Verde 29
    Sierra Leone 31
    Côte d’Ivoire 32
    Ghana 34
    Togo and Benin 36
    Nigeria 37

    Central Africa, The South and East
    Introduction: Manu Dibango 42
    Cameroon 44
    Zaire 49
    Congo 56
    Gabon 56
    Angola 57
    Zambia 58
    Mozambique 59
    Zimbabwe 60
    South Africa 65
    Madagascar 70
    Mauritius and Reunion 71
    Tanzania and Zanzibar 72
    Kenya 74
    Uganda 76
    Burundi 76
    Ethiopia 77
    Sudan 79

  • Lee, Hélène:
    Rockers d’Afrique. Stars et légendes du rock mandinque.
    Paris: Albin Michel, 1988. 223 pp.
    ISBN 2-226-03 139-1 

    TABLE DE MATIÈRESafropop1995

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