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Nevin, Timothy D.:
Politics and Popular Culture:
The Renaissance in Liberian Music, 1970-89.

Ph.D. University of Florida (Gainesville, Fla.), 2010. 307 p.
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  • Nevin, Timothy D.:
    Politics and Popular Culture: The Renaissance in Liberian Music, 1970-89.
    Ph.D. University of Florida (Gainesville, Fla.), 2010. 307 p.

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments 4
    List of abbreviation S9
    Abstract 10

    Chapter 1
    Growth and Development of Liberian Popular Music in the 20thCentury to 1989 11
    Themes and Arguments 12
    Literature Review and Methodology 12
    Grassroots Cultural Revival 18
    Challenges Facing Liberian Musicians 23
    American Cultural Domination 24
    Early Historical Background 26
    19th Century Historical Background 29
    Early to Mid-20th Century 33
    The 1960s 34
    1970, the End of the Tubman Era 35
    1971 and the Tolbert Inauguration 38
    1979 and the Formation of Leftist Political Opposition 41
    The Rice Riots or “Black Saturday” 43
    The 1979 Organization of African Unity Conference 45
    Introducing Master Sergeant Samuel Doe 46
    1980 and the formation of the
    People’s Redemption Council Junta 49
    1981; PRC leader Thomas Weh Syen Eliminated 51
    1983; the Split with Thomas Quiwonkpa 51
    1985; the Rigged Elections 53
    The Failed Quiwonkpa Coup Attempt 54
    Conclusions 58

    Chapter 2
    Musicians at the Crossroads during The Turbulent 1970s 60
    Introduction 60
    President Tolbert at the Crossroads 61
    The Liberian Contingent at FESTAC ’77 64
    Yatta Zoe “Queen of Folksongs” 66
    Young Girls Stop Drinking Lysol 67
    Camp Bella Yalla Military Prison 69
    The Syncretic Character of Liberian Popular Music 70
    Afro-centricity and Liberian Popular Music 72
    Liberian Electric Highlife 74
    Emergence of a Distinct Genre 76
    Morris Dorley, Leading Musical Innovator 77
    The Tejajlu Phenomenon 81
    Tejajlu as a Musical Collective 82
    The National Cultural Center at Kendeja 85

    Chapter 3
    Challenges and Professional Discrimination in the 1970s 87
    Introduction 87
    The State of the Liberian Music Industry in 1971 88
    Lack of Musical Infrastructure 89
    The Church’s and Military’s Institutional Role as Music Educators 90
    Popular Prejudices and “Grona Boys” 92
    Widespread Parental Opposition (Intergenerational Conflict) 94
    Recording Studios in Liberia during the 1970s 97
    ABC Studios 97
    Studio One 99
    Limited Markets for Liberian Music 100
    “Ameri-centric” Cultural Dependency 100
    The Prevalence of “Copyright Music” 102
    Liberian Musical Impersonators 104
    The Copyright Phenomenon 105
    Copy It Right 108
    Poor Working Conditions 113
    Low Wages and “Shobu” 115
    Discrimination on the Radio 115
    State Radio Station ELBC 117
    Radio Stations ELWA & ELNR 121

    Chapter 4
    Liberian Popular Music as a Historical Lens to View Contemporary Events 123
    Introduction 124
    Liberian Popular Music as a Historical Lens 124
    “Normal Times” Defined 126
    “Normal Times” and its Relationship to Local Music 127
    OAU Welcome to Liberia! 129
    Events Surrounding the 1980 Coup 132
    The 1980 Coup Revisited 135
    Sam Doe’s Social Milieu 140
    The 1980 Coup; Effects on the Performing Arts 141
    Who Owns Papa’s Land 142
    “Redemption of the Liberian People” Dance Drama 145
    Social Commentary on the 1980 Coup 146
    Miatta Fahnbulleh on the 1980 Coup 147
    Miatta Fahnbulleh and “Revolution” 149
    Miatta Fahnbulleh, First Lady of Song 151
    Princess Fatu Gayflor’s Beginnings 153
    Princess Fatu Gayflor’s Career 155
    Princess Fatu Gayflor & the Market Women of Rally Time 156
    A Gedeh Rooster in the Big City of Lights 158
    Youth Concerts and Variety Shows 161

    Chapter 5
    Recording Studios and Cassette Piraters in the 1980s 164
    Introduction 164
    Recording Studios and Musicians 165
    Hotline Studios 166
    Record Producer Faisal Helwani 168
    The Introduction of Studio 99 170
    Production and Conflict at Studio 99 170
    Donald Cooper Comments on Studio 99 175
    Close to Power, Yet Relatively Powerless 177
    Command Performances under a Military Dictatorship 179
    The Musician’s Union of Liberia (MULA) 180
    Audiocassette Technology 183
    Cassette piracy in Liberia 187
    Tulsi Halwani, Pirate Extraordinaire 190
    Cassette Piracy Cartels 192
    Cassette Piracy and the Radio 192

    Chapter 6
    Peace and Human Rights: Rallying Cries of the 1980s 194
    Introduction 194
    Afro-rock and Reggae 195
    Purple Haze 196
    Reggae’s Popularity in West Africa 198
    Reggae Arrives on Liberian Shores 200
    The Reggae Sunsplash ’88 Mega-Concert  202
    Shared Visions of Peace 203
    “No Peace, No Love” and the Anti-War Message 205
    Aaron Lewis and the Medusa Group 211
    Saku Sillah’s Contribution 212
    Liberian Women Musicians and Male Chauvinism 214
    Hawa Daisy Moore’s Story 216
    Hawa Daisy Moore’s Career 219
    Miatta Fahnbulleh’s Experience 220
    Nimba Burr Begs us to Remember 222

    Chapter 7
    Ethnic Pluralism and Social Justice in the 1980s 226
    The Ideal of Ethnic Pluralism 226
    The Cause of Sectional Equality 229
    Zack and Gebah’s “Sweet Liberia” 233
    Code Switching and “Africaneity” 235
    Malawala Balawala on National Television 236
    Liberian Palaver Hut at the 1985 World’s Fair 236
    Doughba Caranda’s Career 237
    Tejajlu and the Struggle for Social Justice 238
    Tejajlu on the National Stage 242
    Showman Tecumsey Roberts 242
    Tecumsey Roberts; Career and Tragic Demise 244
    The Moga Band and Afro-disco 247
    Kapingbdi and “Don’t Escape” 249
    Lost Career Opportunities Due to Civil War 251

    Chapter 8
    Reprise: A Summary of Findings 254
    On Remembrance and the Act of Forgetting 254
    Music History as Labor History 255
    Section One (Chapters 1-3) 257
    Section Two (Chapters 4-6) 259
    Section Three (Chapters 7-8) 261
    The Evolution of Musical Taste in Liberia 263
    Language Choice Matters 265
    Three Political Openings 267

    Appendix
    A. Interviews for Dissertation 270
    B. A Search List of Liberian Recording Artists 275

    List Of References 279
    Biographical Sketch 307

  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

    CONTENTS

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  • Johnson, John William:
    ‘Heelloy’. Modern Poetry and Songs of the Somalis.
    London: HAAN Publishing, 1998. xxiii & 241 p.
    ISBN 978-1-874-20981-2

    CONTENTS

    Foreword to the first edition by B. W. Andrzejewski ix
    Foreword to the 1996 edition by Abdilahi Qarshi xi
    Preface to the first edition xv
    Preface to the 1996 edition xxiii

    1. Introduction
    The social context 1
    The Nature of Traditional Pastoralist Poetry 12
    The Historical Development of Modern Oral Poetry 17

    2. The Family of Miniature Genres
    The Nature of the Family of Miniature Genres 27
    The Poetry of the Miniature Family 32

    3. The emergence of the Belwo
    The Historical Background 49
    The Belwo is Born 53
    The Poetry of the Belwo 59

    4. The Heello: Period One
    The Metamorphosis: Belwo to Heello A 75
    The Modem Poem: Heello A to Heello B 82

    5. The Heello: Period Two
    The Historical Background 95
    The Poetry of the Second Period 103

    6. The Heello: Period Three
    The Historical Background 117
    The Poetry of the Third Period 146

    7. Characteristics of the Heello: All Periods
    Themes Common to All Periods 175
    Structural Characteristics and
    Development Common to All Periods 190
    The Impact of Media on Modern Poetry 208

    8. Conclusion
    The Inheritance of the Heello 215
    Forces Behind the Success and Development of Modern Poetry 216

  • Nevin, Timothy D.:
    Politics and Popular Culture: The Renaissance in Liberian Music, 1970-89.
    Ph.D. University of Florida (Gainesville, Fla.), 2010. 307 p.

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments 4
    List of abbreviation S9
    Abstract 10

    Chapter 1
    Growth and Development of Liberian Popular Music in the 20thCentury to 1989 11
    Themes and Arguments 12
    Literature Review and Methodology 12
    Grassroots Cultural Revival 18
    Challenges Facing Liberian Musicians 23
    American Cultural Domination 24
    Early Historical Background 26
    19th Century Historical Background 29
    Early to Mid-20th Century 33
    The 1960s 34
    1970, the End of the Tubman Era 35
    1971 and the Tolbert Inauguration 38
    1979 and the Formation of Leftist Political Opposition 41
    The Rice Riots or “Black Saturday” 43
    The 1979 Organization of African Unity Conference 45
    Introducing Master Sergeant Samuel Doe 46
    1980 and the formation of the
    People’s Redemption Council Junta 49
    1981; PRC leader Thomas Weh Syen Eliminated 51
    1983; the Split with Thomas Quiwonkpa 51
    1985; the Rigged Elections 53
    The Failed Quiwonkpa Coup Attempt 54
    Conclusions 58

    Chapter 2
    Musicians at the Crossroads during The Turbulent 1970s 60
    Introduction 60
    President Tolbert at the Crossroads 61
    The Liberian Contingent at FESTAC ’77 64
    Yatta Zoe “Queen of Folksongs” 66
    Young Girls Stop Drinking Lysol 67
    Camp Bella Yalla Military Prison 69
    The Syncretic Character of Liberian Popular Music 70
    Afro-centricity and Liberian Popular Music 72
    Liberian Electric Highlife 74
    Emergence of a Distinct Genre 76
    Morris Dorley, Leading Musical Innovator 77
    The Tejajlu Phenomenon 81
    Tejajlu as a Musical Collective 82
    The National Cultural Center at Kendeja 85

    Chapter 3
    Challenges and Professional Discrimination in the 1970s 87
    Introduction 87
    The State of the Liberian Music Industry in 1971 88
    Lack of Musical Infrastructure 89
    The Church’s and Military’s Institutional Role as Music Educators 90
    Popular Prejudices and “Grona Boys” 92
    Widespread Parental Opposition (Intergenerational Conflict) 94
    Recording Studios in Liberia during the 1970s 97
    ABC Studios 97
    Studio One 99
    Limited Markets for Liberian Music 100
    “Ameri-centric” Cultural Dependency 100
    The Prevalence of “Copyright Music” 102
    Liberian Musical Impersonators 104
    The Copyright Phenomenon 105
    Copy It Right 108
    Poor Working Conditions 113
    Low Wages and “Shobu” 115
    Discrimination on the Radio 115
    State Radio Station ELBC 117
    Radio Stations ELWA & ELNR 121

    Chapter 4
    Liberian Popular Music as a Historical Lens to View Contemporary Events 123
    Introduction 124
    Liberian Popular Music as a Historical Lens 124
    “Normal Times” Defined 126
    “Normal Times” and its Relationship to Local Music 127
    OAU Welcome to Liberia! 129
    Events Surrounding the 1980 Coup 132
    The 1980 Coup Revisited 135
    Sam Doe’s Social Milieu 140
    The 1980 Coup; Effects on the Performing Arts 141
    Who Owns Papa’s Land 142
    “Redemption of the Liberian People” Dance Drama 145
    Social Commentary on the 1980 Coup 146
    Miatta Fahnbulleh on the 1980 Coup 147
    Miatta Fahnbulleh and “Revolution” 149
    Miatta Fahnbulleh, First Lady of Song 151
    Princess Fatu Gayflor’s Beginnings 153
    Princess Fatu Gayflor’s Career 155
    Princess Fatu Gayflor & the Market Women of Rally Time 156
    A Gedeh Rooster in the Big City of Lights 158
    Youth Concerts and Variety Shows 161

    Chapter 5
    Recording Studios and Cassette Piraters in the 1980s 164
    Introduction 164
    Recording Studios and Musicians 165
    Hotline Studios 166
    Record Producer Faisal Helwani 168
    The Introduction of Studio 99 170
    Production and Conflict at Studio 99 170
    Donald Cooper Comments on Studio 99 175
    Close to Power, Yet Relatively Powerless 177
    Command Performances under a Military Dictatorship 179
    The Musician’s Union of Liberia (MULA) 180
    Audiocassette Technology 183
    Cassette piracy in Liberia 187
    Tulsi Halwani, Pirate Extraordinaire 190
    Cassette Piracy Cartels 192
    Cassette Piracy and the Radio 192

    Chapter 6
    Peace and Human Rights: Rallying Cries of the 1980s 194
    Introduction 194
    Afro-rock and Reggae 195
    Purple Haze 196
    Reggae’s Popularity in West Africa 198
    Reggae Arrives on Liberian Shores 200
    The Reggae Sunsplash ’88 Mega-Concert  202
    Shared Visions of Peace 203
    “No Peace, No Love” and the Anti-War Message 205
    Aaron Lewis and the Medusa Group 211
    Saku Sillah’s Contribution 212
    Liberian Women Musicians and Male Chauvinism 214
    Hawa Daisy Moore’s Story 216
    Hawa Daisy Moore’s Career 219
    Miatta Fahnbulleh’s Experience 220
    Nimba Burr Begs us to Remember 222

    Chapter 7
    Ethnic Pluralism and Social Justice in the 1980s 226
    The Ideal of Ethnic Pluralism 226
    The Cause of Sectional Equality 229
    Zack and Gebah’s “Sweet Liberia” 233
    Code Switching and “Africaneity” 235
    Malawala Balawala on National Television 236
    Liberian Palaver Hut at the 1985 World’s Fair 236
    Doughba Caranda’s Career 237
    Tejajlu and the Struggle for Social Justice 238
    Tejajlu on the National Stage 242
    Showman Tecumsey Roberts 242
    Tecumsey Roberts; Career and Tragic Demise 244
    The Moga Band and Afro-disco 247
    Kapingbdi and “Don’t Escape” 249
    Lost Career Opportunities Due to Civil War 251

    Chapter 8
    Reprise: A Summary of Findings 254
    On Remembrance and the Act of Forgetting 254
    Music History as Labor History 255
    Section One (Chapters 1-3) 257
    Section Two (Chapters 4-6) 259
    Section Three (Chapters 7-8) 261
    The Evolution of Musical Taste in Liberia 263
    Language Choice Matters 265
    Three Political Openings 267

    Appendix
    A. Interviews for Dissertation 270
    B. A Search List of Liberian Recording Artists 275

    List Of References 279
    Biographical Sketch 307

  • Collins, [Edmund] John:
    Fela. Kalakuta Notes. 2nd edition
    Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2015.  xii & 326 p.
    ISBN 978-0-8195-7539-5 (paper) 978-0-8195-7540-1 (ebook)

    CONTENTS

    Foreword by Banning Eyre ix
    Introduction 1

    Part 1 Early Days
    1 The Birth of Afrobeat 27
    2 Joe Mensah Remembers 41
    3 Fela in Ghana 49
    4 Stan Plange Remembers 29

    Part 2 Confrontation
    5 Kalakuta is Born 67
    6 “JB” Talks about Fela 73
    7 The Kalakuta Republic 81
    8 The Black President 114
    9 Amsterdam and After 125

    Part 3 Retrospect
    10 Mac Tontoh on Fela 139
    11 Frank Talk about Fela 152
    12 Obiba Plays It Again 165
    13 Smart Binete Sorts It Out 174
    14 Anku Checks Out the Beat 178
    15 Nana Danso Orchestrates 183
    16 Some Early Afro-Fusion Pioneers 197
    17 Interview with Fela 204
    18 Afterthoughts and Updates 209
    19. Felabrations at Home and Abroad 238

    Chronology 259
    Notes 269
    Selected Bibliography 281
    Discography 285
    Appendix A: “Shuffering and Shmiling” Score 303
    Index 309

  • Erlmann, Veit (ed.):
    Populäre Musik in Afrika.

    Veröffentlichungen des Museum für Völkerkunde.
    Neue Folge 53. Abteilung Musikethnologie VIII.
    Berlin: Museum für Völkerkunde, 1991. 312 pp. & 2 CDs.
    ISBN 3-88609-213-5

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  • Mortaigne, Veronique:
    Cesaria Evora. La voix du Cap-Vert.
    Arles: Actes Sud, 1997. 203 p.

    ISBN 2-7427-1152-X 

    afropop1995

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  • Sweeney, Philip:
    Directory of World Music. A Guide to Performers and their Music.
    With Contributions from Peter Gabriel, Andy Kershaw, Giberto Gil [&] Manu Dibango.
    London: Virgin Books, 1991. 262 p.
    Section Africa 1-81
    ISBN 0-86369-378-4

    sweeney1991CONTENTS

    AFRICA

    The North and West
    Introduction: Peter Gabriel 1
    Libya 3
    Tunisia 5
    Algeria 6
    Morocco 13
    Mauritania 16
    Senegal 17
    Mali 20
    Guinea 26
    Guinea-Bissau 29
    Cape Verde 29
    Sierra Leone 31
    Côte d’Ivoire 32
    Ghana 34
    Togo and Benin 36
    Nigeria 37

    Central Africa, The South and East
    Introduction: Manu Dibango 42
    Cameroon 44
    Zaire 49
    Congo 56
    Gabon 56
    Angola 57
    Zambia 58
    Mozambique 59
    Zimbabwe 60
    South Africa 65
    Madagascar 70
    Mauritius and Reunion 71
    Tanzania and Zanzibar 72
    Kenya 74
    Uganda 76
    Burundi 76
    Ethiopia 77
    Sudan 79

  • Lee, Hélène:
    Rockers d’Afrique. Stars et légendes du rock mandinque.
    Paris: Albin Michel, 1988. 223 pp.
    ISBN 2-226-03 139-1 

    TABLE DE MATIÈRESafropop1995

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